develop ( Salmi, 2009 ). Hence, the race for status has triggered the development of a more strategic university, where external orientation, external analysis and strategicplanning have become commonplace ( Toma, 2010 ). Internationally, becoming an entrepreneurial university has become an ideal that
To analyze the impact of a university’s identity on its strategicplanning efforts, and in particular on its internationalization strategy, I propose a brief analysis of five interrelated variables: external environment, organizational identity, strategicplanning, internationalization, and
In 2003, the EU declared its civilian and military crisis management instruments ready for deployment. Since then, EU member states have demonstrated their capability to act as a global security player. They have deployed civil missions and military operations to Sub-Saharan Africa, the Balkans, the Eastern neighbourhood, the Near and Middle East, and even to Asia. Th ese engagements have encompassed a variety of approaches and tools to crisis management and stabilisation, ranging from the training of security forces and the support for the rule of law, to the provision of a military or civilian presence, to safeguard elections or to monitor border arrangements and ceasefire agreements, to the fight against piracy or other forms of organised crime. Altogether, by the end of 2009, the EU had conducted 23 missions and operations under the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). The EU has made considerable progress on its way to becoming a global security actor. However, case studies show that many ESDP engagements face substantial shortcomings – chief among them the lack of long-term, strategic planning for future deployments, a binding and institutionalised “lessons learned” process as well as a consistent follow-up by member states and EU institutions involved.
Natural areas and resources form the basis for many regional economies in the Arctic. Natural conditions, including climate, have been considered stable on human timescales and taken as starting points in regional development work – until recently. During the past few years the notion of a changing climate with various ecological and socio-economic impacts has made its way also to regional development strategies. Despite the common perception of climate change as completely devastating for the whole Arctic, the effects can be regionally differentiated.
This article discusses regional development related strategic planning as a forum and tool for addressing climate change. This is carried out by empirically examining the emergence of climate change as an important trend or factor in the development programmes of one region in the Arctic, Finnish Lapland, mid-1990s onwards. The review sets a background for the ways how climate change is thought to affect Lapland’s economy and society in the future, as presented in the region’s recently published Climate Change Strategy 2030. Climate change, nowadays regarded as an important trend affecting the region’s future, is expected to bring along new opportunities for Lapland and change the strategic position of the region to a more favourable one also in wider political and economic sense.
Regional development related strategic planning can, in some politicoadministrational cultures such as in Finland, serve well as a context for climate change adaptation, but the task to promote regional development can lead to less emphasis on global environmental concern and more on ensuring the auspicious development in the region.
Soviet and U.S. strategicplan- ners regarding the controllability of nuclear war, and the approaches which each has taken to the design of their national strategic command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) systems.1 1 For more than two decades now, the overriding objective of U
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 13: The United States and Wartime Diplomacy, 1941-1945 | Strategy and Operations authorMatloff, Maurice, and Edwin M. SnellimprintWashington: Government Printing Office, 1953.annotationThis and Matloff 1959 in the official army history trace U.S. strategicplanning
British Intelligence and Policy on Persia (Iran), c. 1900-1949 India Office Political and Secret Files and Confidential Print
The present edition brings together the product of all this activity – ranging through British reporting, planning and thinking on:
• the Persian revolution of 1905-09;
• the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 which divided the country into informal spheres of influence;
• First World War intervention;
• the Communist threat;
• the reign of Riza Shah;
• Second World War intervention;
• the countering of German influence;
• the succession of Muhammad Riza.
Dominant foreign partner British involvement in Persia dated back to the East India Company's first trading contacts of the early seventeenth century. But by the late nineteenth century, when the country's economic life was largely in the hands of Russian and British concessionaires, it seemed as if Persia might even become a Russian protectorate. instead, the British, with their immensely valuable oil concessions in the south, emerged as the dominant foreign partner.
Information gathering British India and London's strategic planning and policy formulation required information – intelligence on internal politics, tribal groupings, rivalries, personalities, resources, communications and the terrain – to provide “background” for political relations and practical “know-how” for military operations and clandestine activities.
Information gathering devolved in the first instance upon British diplomatic representatives in Persia. There were four players on the British side – the Foreign Office and War Office in London, the Government of India Foreign Department, and the Indian Army General Staff. Personnel manning posts in Persia were drawn from the London-based Diplomatic and Consular Services and the British Army, or from the Indian Civil Service, the Indian Political Service and the Indian Army.
Embassies and Consulates(-General) Reflecting the perceived importance of Russian designs and of British strategic interests, the country was exceptionally well covered. In addition to a permanent British legation at Tehran from the 1850s, there were Consuls-General at Bushire from 1878, Isfahan from 1891 and Meshed from 1889, and at varying dates Consuls in Ahwaz, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorramshahr, Resht, Seistan and Shiraz.
Political intelligence The two central series are the Government of India Foreign Department Printed Correspondence and the Foreign Office annual political reports 1910-1948. The first, some 5,000 pages in 44 parts, prints all incoming and outgoing papers relating to Persia between 1916 and 1940; the pagination is frequently erratic, but within each “part” the documents are arranged in a continuously numbered sequence. There are also long runs of Consular diaries/summaries from the various posts, printed up either by the Foreign Office or the Government of India (though typescript became the norm from around 1933/34). The diaries have numbered sequences for each year or issue dates within the year, varying from monthly to weekly.
Transmission was extremely cumbersome. Predominantly Foreign Office posts (eg. Tehran, Kermanshah, Khorramshahr, Resht, Shiraz) made their reports to the FO in London, from where copies were sent to the India Office. Government of India posts (eg. Ahwaz, Kerman, Meshed, Seistan) reported to Delhi, from where copies were sent to the India Office in London and from there forwarded to the Foreign Office.
Military intelligence A small Intelligence Branch was formed within the Quarter Master General's Department at Army Headquarters, India, in 1878. The wide-ranging reforms of the Army in India Committee of 1912-13 established an Intelligence Section (M.O.3) within the Military Operations Directorate of the General Staff, divided into four geographical sub-sections (one of them responsible for Persia) and a fifth devoted to “special work of a confidential nature.”
The General Staff, India, was responsible for a stream of gazetteers, route books, military reports and who's who compilations. Sources were the military attachés at the diplomatic posts and military officers in the field (particularly during the two World Wars), their Persian and other contacts, and clandestinely employed local agents. The military attachés also produced regular intelligence summaries. The Meshed consulate was an especially important listening post for developments across the borders in Russian Central Asia and Afghanistan. In 1913 the Foreign Office laid down that the collection of military intelligence was not part of the duty of British consulates, so that the task devolved almost entirely upon the General Staff, India, with some financial input from the War Office.
The various volumes of gazetteers, route books, military reports and who's who compilations have a roughly similar geographical coverage:
• Vol. 1. North-east (Khorasan, Kain, Seistan);
• Vol. 2. North & Central (incl Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, Kermanshah, Tehran);
• Vol. 3. South-west (Luristan, Bakhtiari, Isfahan, Arabistan, Khuzistan, Kughalu);
• Vol. 4/1. South (Yazd, Fars, Laristan, Gulf Ports);
• Vol. 4/2. South-east (Kerman, Persian Baluchistan).
Secret, Confidential or For Oficial Use Only All the works were classifed “Secret,” “Confidential” or “For Oficial Use Only,” and were subject to strict rules of custody. It was also ordered that when a new edition of a particular work appeared all previous editions had to be destroyed. As a result these works survive in very few locations. The collection in the India Office Records at the British Library is unique in its breadth and accessibility.
Provenance and historical background The political reports, diaries and summaries produced in the diplomatic posts (including the military attaché materials) were received in the Political & Secret Department registry at the India Office and were given reference numbers within its annual file sequences. They were eventually brought together as “subject” files up to 1931 (L/P&S/10) and as files within “external subject collection 28 – Persia” (L/P&S/12) thereafter. The General Staff, India, secret and confidential works are located in two internal “reference libraries” which were kept within the Military Department (L/MIL/17) and the Political & Secret Department (L/P&S/20) at the India Office. Items were received from India upon publication and were kept/disposed of according to the custody rules laid down by the originator.
All the India Office departments were subsumed within the Commonwealth Relations Office (subsequently the Foreign & Commonwealth Office) after Independence in 1947. In 1982 the Foreign & Commonwealth Office transferred the administration of the India Office Library & Records to the British Library, now forms one part of the Library's Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections (specifically, the former Oriental & India Office Collections (OIOC)).
A.J.Farrington, Former Deputy Director, Oriental & India Office Collections (OIOC, now part of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections), The British Library
British Military Intelligence on China and the Boxer Rising, c. 1880-1930 Remarkable Series of Secret Gazetteers of the Provinces of China, Confidential Print and Intelligence Reports
English East India Company British India’s – and by extension the India Office in London’s – interest in and expertise on its great neighbour China was not merely the result of the process of British territorial expansion in South Asia which eventually produced a common border extending from Sinkiang to Yunnan. It had its precusor in the commercial activities of the English East India Company (EIC).
The prize of trade to China was only achieved slowly. Beginning with a trading post on Ming-supporting Taiwan in 1672, the EIC was able to make its peace with the new Q’ing rulers after the island was conquered, and in the 1680s and 1690s was permitted to make regular voyages to Amoy, Chusan and Canton.
In the early 1700s the Q’ing limited the European trading companies to Canton, where an elaborate system of control and supervision through officially-appointed “Hong” merchants was established. The EIC, blessed with a freer commercial structure than its rivals, plus existing contacts into the Chinese merchant community, emerged as the main European player in trade to China. The eighteenth century saw the rise of tea as the new “wonder commodity” which financed the EIC’s rise to pan-Asian dominance. The early nineteenth century saw the vicious illegal traffic in opium, largely originating in British India, which brought so much misery to China.
Expeditions against China The EIC ceased to be a trading organisation in 1834 and was replaced by dozens of separate British companies. But the Hong trading system still applied at Canton, a clear recipe for trouble. The First China War (Opium War) of 1840-42 was fought because of Chinese action against the British opium network at Canton, but its underlying purpose was to force China to abandon the “Canton system” and open up to foreign trade. British India provided the manpower for the war, drawn from the EIC’s Bengal and Madras Armies and its Bombay Marine. Hong Kong was ceded to the British Crown and five ports were declared open – Canton, Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo and Shanghai.
The Second China War of 1857-60, in which the British were allied with the French, was similarly powered from British India. The British brought to North China 41 warships, 143 transports and 10,500 troops. The allies entered Peking, the Summer Palace was destroyed as a “reprisal” for breaking a flag of truce, and the Q’ing emperor was forced to a treaty settlement which had the effect of opening the whole of China to Western interests.
The present collection covers the period up to and beyond the third British military expedition against China in 1900, when British India again played the leading role. It is largely a reflection of the strategic planning process within British India (and to a lesser extent in London) for future operations.
Military intelligence A small intelligence branch was formed within the Quarter Master General’s Department at Army Headquarters, India, in 1878. Post-1860 diplomatic representation in China meant that the branch could attach small numbers of officers to the British Embassy in Peking as language students – two were selected annually to undertake a two year course of study and residence in China, followed by a fierce oral and written examination. Its components included:
The examiner reads English sentences aloud and the candidate gives them orally in Chinese. Passages from the Chinese press are read aloud by a Chinese and the candidate gives them orally in English. Conversation on military and general subjects with a Chinese. English sentences on military subjects are laid before the candidate, who translates them into Chinese, writing them down in the Chinese character. Dictionary not allowed. Written translation of official documents and passages from Chinese military textbooks, without the aid of a dictionary.
Successful students went on to form a cadre of language ability and local knowledge back at Army Headquarters or at various postings in China – for instance, British consulates in the western provinces bordering Tibet and Burma were staffed from British India.
The wide-ranging reforms of the Army in India Committee of 1912-13 established an Intelligence Section (M.O.3) within the Military Operations Directorate of the General Staff. China was covered by one of four sub-sections and was manned by two staff officers with shared clerical support.
Great historical value The Quarter Master General’s Branch and the General Staff, India, were responsible for a stream of gazetteers, route books, military reports and similar compilations. Their purpose, of course, was not to facilitate academic research but to provide essential information for any future military operations against China. But based as they are on first-hand experience, they now have great historical value as a source for conditions in late Q’ing China.
All the works were classified Secret, Confidential or For Official Use Only, and were subject to strict rules of custody. It was also ordered that when a new edition of a particular work appeared all previous editions had to be destroyed. As a result these works survive in very few locations. The collection in the India Office Records at the British Library is unique in its breadth and accessibility.
Provenance and historical background The various secret and confidential works are located in two internal “reference libraries” which accumulated within the Military Department (L/MIL/17) and the Political & Secret Department (L/P&S/20) at the India Office in London. Items were received upon publication and were kept/disposed of according to the custody rules laid down by the originator.
Papers relating to the 1900 Expedition were received from India by the Military Department registry and were given reference numbers within its annual file sequences. They were eventually brought together as a series of files designated Military Collection 402, from which a selection of intelligence-slanted material has now been made.
All the India Office departments were subsumed within the Commonwealth Relations Office (subsequently the Foreign & Commonwealth Office) after Independence in 1947. In 1982 the Foreign & Commonwealth Office transferred the administration of the India Office Library & Records to the British Library, where it now forms one part of the Library’s Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections (specifically, the former Oriental & India Office Collections (OIOC)).
A.J.Farrington, Former Deputy Director Oriental & India Office Collections (OIOC, now part of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections), The British Library
British Intelligence on Afghanistan and Its Frontiers, c. 1888-1946 India Office Political and Secret Files and Confidential Print
Political and military strategies The defense of the North-West Frontier of British India and the status of Afghanistan in the face of real or imagined Russian threats were dominant themes in the political and military strategies of British India for more than a hundred years, beginning with the First Afghan War intervention of 1838-1842, when the British frontier had not actually reached Afghanistan. Strategic planning and policy formulation required information - intelligence on the terrain, communications, resources, internal politics, tribal groupings, rivalries, and personalities - to provide both background for political relations and practical know-how for possible military operations.
Before 1922, there was no direct Government of India diplomatic or political representation inside Afghanistan, apart from disastrous attempts to station Residents at Kabul in 1838-1842 and 1878-1880, while the government in London did not consider Afghanistan to be a nation of a status requiring a diplomatic mission. Between 1882 and 1919, however, a succession of Indian Muslim Agents were posted to Kabul from India, and after the Third Afghan War of 1919-1921 full diplomatic relations were finally established. The British Ministers in Kabul up to 1949 were members of the Indian Political Service, but were appointed by the Foreign Office in London.
Early information-gathering was both patchy and dangerous, and depended upon the abilities of individual travelers, often in disguise, and the occasional employment of native newswriters. It was not until the outbreak of the Second Afghan War of 1878-1880 that the Government of India began to take more seriously the whole question of intelligence.
Military intelligence In 1878 an Intelligence Branch was formed within the Quartermaster- General’s Department at Army Headquarters, India, consisting of three officers and two assistants. Reorganization in 1892 increased the complement to five officers and four assistants, and in 1903 the officer-in-charge was raised to the rank of Brigadier-General, with added responsibility for mobilization. The wide-ranging reforms of the Army in India Committee of 1912-1913 established an Intelligence Section (M.O.3) within the Military Operations Directorate of the General Staff. The Section, headed by a General Staff Officer Grade 1 reporting to a Brigadier-General Director of Military Operations, was divided into five subsections, four of them geographical (Afghanistan, Russian Turkestan and the North-West Frontier were subsection N), and the fifth devoted to “special work of a confidential nature.” Total staffing was fifteen officers and ten clerks. This arrangement, with regular increases of personnel, continued until the end of British rule in 1947.
Unique collection Beginning rather slowly with historically oriented gazetteers and similar background works, the Intelligence Branch eventually issued a stream of practical handbooks, route books, military reports, tribal monographs, “who’s who” compilations, and summaries of events. Sources were officers in the field, particularly those stationed on the North-West Frontier, and their contacts, together with local tribesmen who had been clandestinely employed. All the works were classified “Secret,” “Confidential,” or “For Official Use Only,” and were subject to strict rules of custody. It was also ordered that when a new edition of a particular work appeared, all previous editions were to be destroyed. As a result, these works survive in very few locations.
Political intelligence The Government of India Foreign & Political Department had a parallel intelligence interest, concentrating on Afghanistan’s internal and external affairs and trans-frontier tribes and personalities. It issued its own compilations, mainly sourced by political officers serving on the North-West Frontier or in Afghanistan proper, and often overlapping the work of the military.
Printed Correspondence Of special significance, however, is the massive series of Foreign Department Printed Correspondence, totaling some 13,600 pages in 73 parts. Because it was archived in London separately from the main groupings of intelligence publications, the Printed Correspondence remains a little-known source. The series, in imitation of what had become standard practice at the Foreign Office in London, reprinted all incoming and outgoing correspondence and associated papers relating to Afghanistan between 1919 and 1941. Beginning as “Third Afghan War 1919 Correspondence,” the title eventually became “Afghan Series;” the pagination is frequently erratic, but within each part the documents run in a continuously numbered sequence.
Provenance The secret and confidential print reproduced in the present collection are located in two internal reference libraries which were kept within the Military Department (L/MIL/17) and the Political & Secret Department (L/P&S/20) at the pre-1947 India Office in London. Items were received from India upon publication and were kept or disposed of according to the strict custody rules laid down by the originators. Exceptions are (1) the Foreign Department Printed Correspondence, which passed through the Political & Secret Department registry and was placed in “subject” files up to 1931 (L/P&S/10), and thereafter in “subject” collections (L/P&S/12); and (2) a small number of items which accumulated at the British Legation in Kabul (R/12) and were then brought to London, together with the Legation’s archive, in 1965. All the India Office departments were subsumed within the Commonwealth Relations Office (subsequently the Foreign & Commonwealth Office) after Independence in 1947. In 1982, Library & Records to the British Library, where it now forms a part of the Library’s Oriental & India Office Collections.
A.J. Farrington, Former Deputy Director, Oriental & India Office Collections (OIOC), British Library
U.S. Hispanic Heritage Newspapers, journals, literature, personal papers and correspondence
In 1998 the "Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage Project" selected IDC Publishers as its partner in an exclusive arrangement to disseminate Hispanic literary source material throughout the world. In 2001, the collection has been expanded with Part II (
U.S. Hispanic Heritage II), containing 121 reels from the “Casa Bautista de El Paso, TX” (collection nr. HH-13). In 2004, Part III of this collection (
U.S. Hispanic Heritage III) was completed, containing collection nrs. HH-14 (“Religious Thought Collection”) and HH-15 (“Books and Pamphlets”).
Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage Project The project grew out of the work developed over the past twenty years by Nicolás Kanellos and the scholars of the Board of Advisors who recognized that a vast corpus of literature written by U.S. Hispanics prior to 1960 remained virtually unknown and scattered across the country. In 1990 they brought together leading scholars of U.S. Hispanic literary history for a conference to develop strategic plans for the recovery of that legacy. The Rockefeller Foundation sponsored the conference, the design of the project and donated base funding for ten years. Soon, thereafter, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, The National Endowment for the Humanities, the Ford Foundation, AT&T Foundation and Save America's Treasures, a public/private partnership between the White House Millennium Council and the National Trust for Historic Preservation, administered by the National Endowment for the Arts also joined in support of the project.
Religious Thought Collection: Periodicals and Books (HH-14) The role of religion in building Hispanic culture in the United Stated has not been adequately studied nor understood. A large body of religious thought by U. S. Hispanics during the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries is now being released. This collection is unique in its scope and depth, relating to a previously understudied history of Hispanics in the United States, as well as to their history and culture in Spanish America.
The role of religion Hispanics around the world and in the United States have been characterized in scholarship and popular opinion by the dimensions of their predominant Catholic faith. Neither their diversity of faith nor their ethnic and racial diversity have been adequately studied. But most importantly for Hispanics in the United States, the role of religion in building Hispanic culture in this country has not been adequately studied nor understood.
Massive immigration The specific span of time that is least understood and researched is that period beginning in 1848, with the United States conquest and incorporation of what became the Southwest of this country, through the period of massive immigration of economic, political and religious refugees of the Mexican Revolution (beginning in 1910), the incorporation of Puerto Ricans as American citizens (1917), and the building of large Hispanic ethnic enclaves that became centers of U.S. Hispanic minority culture in urban centers from the 1920s to the 1960s.
Protestant missions Part of the Americanization process of Puerto Ricans on the island and on the mainland was their being targeted by Protestant missions. An integral part of the practice of Mormonism is the conversion of Latin Americans and Native Americans, thus the need for the missionary experience in Latin America for the Church of Later Day Saints. During the Mexican Revolution, the Catholic Church set up its hierarchy in exile, in El Paso and Los Angeles. In fact, an entire war was fought on Mexican soil (and funded in part by religious exiles and immigrant communities in the U.S.) over the role of religion in Mexican life: the Cristero War, 1926-29. From the 1920's through the 1950s, churches and church societies became the most stable and unifying institutions in the immigrant communities of Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans and Spaniards. Such societies as the Círculo de Obreros Católicos San José in East Chicago, Indiana, in the 1920s and 1930s, preserved language, faith and culture through fundraising dances and bazaars, the performance of secular plays, publishing a newspaper and even organizing civil rights protests.
Religious periodicals Largely unknown to scholars are the hundreds of religious periodicals published and circulated by Hispanic communities during this time span: Baptist, Methodist and Presbyterian newspapers for wide circulation, weekly newspapers by church-related groups which served as the major news source for the ethnic enclave, Catholic newspapers magazines for a Hispanic readership throughout the Southwest. Equally unknown and untapped were the hundreds of Spanish-language books published by and for Hispanic faithful from such religious publishing centers as El Paso, San Antonio, Kansas City and Chicago. They run the gamut from Bibles, Catechisms and books of sermons in Spanish to autobiographies of converts and ministers, to the memoirs of political exiles in the United States, to books detailing the role of religion in social and political life.
Books and Pamphlets (HH-15) People of Hispanic heritage have resided in the geographic area now part of the United States since the mid-sixteenth century and have participated in the making of this country since its founding in 1776. Their written record and literary creativity goes back to the early days of exploration and settlement. Unfortunately, many of these books have been lost due to the ravages of time, lack of institutional interest, small press runs, etc. Before the present microfilm collection it was virtually impossible for scholars and students to study these books and pamphlets as an area of knowledge or an historical nexus of thought and identity.
Printing presses While scholars and archivists have preserved and made accessible much of the manuscript record from the early colonial period, the material produced on printing presses from the late eighteenth century on has not similarly been identified, preserved, made accessible or studied.
This is tragic because:
1) this period up to World War II is the period of rapid incorporation and growth of Hispanics in the United States because of U.S. expansionism and Hispanic immigration;
2) it is a time when Hispanic writers were actively engaged in interpreting and disseminating American democracy throughout the United States and the Spanish-speaking world in the struggle for independence from Spain;
3) it is also the period when acidic paper was introduced for printing, thus putting at risk a great portion of the written expression published, especially in such cities as New York, Philadelphia, San Antonio and Los Angeles, precisely at the time when Hispanics were forging a U.S.-based identity.
Only remaining vestiges Most of the books offered in this microfilm collection exist in fewer than ten copies and have not previously been subject to microfilm preservation, deacidification and rare books restrictions. These books, however delicate in condition, are the only remaining vestiges of this tradition, now that the manuscripts are lost.
This collection of books exists as a subject area and is not currently housed in any central facility; rather, the books themselves are dispersed in various collections, large and small, throughout the United States.