Alexandra Bhattacharya

Section I. Introduction It is often argued that new systemic tensions have been introduced between the governance of trade and health with the adoption of the Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, following the conclusion of the Uruguay Round negotiations of the World

An International Law Perspective on the Protection of Human Rights in the TRIPS Agreement

An Interpretation of the TRIPS Agreement in Relation to the Right to Health


Ping Xiong

This book offers an analysis of the interpretation of the WTO TRIPS Agreement and its impact on the right to health. It furthers understanding of WTO jurisprudence and researches the topic in a broad framework of international law. It examines the extent to which the patent protections in the TRIPS Agreement are consistent with the right to health, and in particular with access to medicine. It helps to underpin an understanding of the relationship between human rights law and intellectual property law – specifically between the right to health and patent protection. It usefully analyses the relationship between TRIPS and the right to health and develops an understanding of interpretive techniques for use within WTO dispute settlement.

Daniel Wanjau Muriu

to Health in the Context of the TRIPS Agreement Daniel Wanjau Muriu * Doctoral Candidate, University of Melbourne Law School, Australia Abstract Th is article examines the relationship between WTO’s TRIPS Agreement, patents and access to aff ordable medicines in Sub-Saharan Africa. Th e key role

The Right to Food and the TRIPS Agreement

With a Particular Emphasis on Developing Countries' Measures for Food Production and Distribution


Hans Morten Haugen

A concise analysis of the relationship between patent rights and human rights is given in this book, focusing on the right to food. The UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights identified ‘apparent conflicts’ or ‘actual or potential conflicts’ between human rights and intellectual property rights. The TRIPS Agreement under the WTO Agreement and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights constitute the central treaties in the analysis. The book finds that the right to food and related human rights of the Covenant give important guidance when implementing intellectual property legislation and science policy in general. Moreover, the book does not find that the two treaties actually conflict. There are, however, concerns regarding the national implementation of the treaties.

Siegfried Fina and Gabriel M. Lentner

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). 8 These flexibilities aim to permit developing and least-developed countries to use TRIPS-compatible norms in a manner that enables them to pursue their own public policies (for example

Chamundeeswari Kuppuswamy

addresses issues at the interface of public international law and international intel- lectual property law, and argues that developing countries interests’ will be better protected by the proposed amendment of Article. 31 of the TRIPS Agreement and by the ongoing efforts to elaborate a legal instrument for

Carola Trips and Achim Stein

‘other’ texts. This finding is in line with findings from studies on the copying of the suffix -able ( Trips and Stein, 2008 ), on left dislocation [ Trips and Stein(2016) ], and of cleft sentences ( Trips and Stein, 2018 ) in the me period. References Abraham Werner . 2006

Fayyad Alqudah

Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty (WCT) and Arab Convention on Copyright. Section 1.1. discusses the legal base in Jordan for such protection under inter- national conventions. According to Jordanian law and court practice, international

Thaddeus Manu

noted that prior to the conclusion of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ( trips ), 23 several countries did not view gmo s in agriculture as a patentable subject matter. 24 In fact, plant genetic resources were freely exchanged on the understanding that they

Sandhya Devi Coll and Richard K. Coll

-formal learning experiences, and to integrate in-class learning with LEOS. This Chapter deals with the first of these, and explains how to integrate formal, informal and non-formal learning experiences using the Learner-Integrated Field Trip Inventory (LIFTI). Given this will involve more work for teachers and