speculated about the ongoing processes of transition in Uzbekistan, often drawing comparisons with other Central Asian countries, particularly Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan.
The cases of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan both demonstrate that the impending and feared demise of longstanding dictatorial leaders
1 Introduction I began field research in Turkmenistan in the fall of 2015, having spent the better part of four years working with various Turkmen bureaucracies to be granted fieldwork permission. Although gaining access to Turkmenistan was a lengthy process, once there I faced few impediments to
resources. Resource reserve depletion implies that the wealth and power of China increasingly comes to depend upon uninterrupted supplies of (mainly) oil and gas from the Middle East(e.g. Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, and uae ), Central Asia and the Caspian Region (e.g. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Russia) and
in two such countries: Turkmenistan and the United Arab Emirates ( uae ).
I specifically analyze mosques memorializing President Saparmurat Niyazov (Turkmenbashi Ruhy Mosque) and Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque) ( see Figures 1–2 ). Both mosques are situated in the
Populations of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, were collected in two countries, Israel and Turkmenistan, in environments representing two similar sharp clines of aridity. This allowed us to use the same criteria to define species core and periphery in the two regions. Plants from 21 Israeli and 11 Turkmenian populations were analyzed for 59 putative loci by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Extent of variation was similar in populations at species border (periphery) and in populations inhabiting favorable environments away from the border (core). In contrast, the two regions (Israel and Turkmenistan) differed in extent of genetic diversity as estimated by mean number of alleles per locus, the proportion of polymorphic loci, and the percent of expected heterozygosity, with Israel harboring more variation than Turkmenistan. The genetic population structure revealed by RAPDs did not differ between species core and periphery in each region and between the two regions. The pattern of RAPD variation corresponded to inter-population mosaic structure characterized by genetic differentiation over short geographic distances.
The major conclusion of this study is that there is no simple relationship between neutral genetic variability and population location with respect to the species range (core vs. periphery).
Turkmenistan, in west-central Asia, borders the Caspian Sea to the west. Its neighbors are Kazakhstan (northwest), Uzbekistan (north and northeast), Afghanistan (southeast), and Iran (south). The Kara-Kum (Garagum) Desert, covering 80 percent of the country, extends from the Caspian to the Amu
The population of Turkmenistan is estimated at 5.2 million people in 2014, with about 90% Sunni Muslims and 9% Orthodox Christians. According to the government, 123 religious organizations were registered officially in Turkmenistan in 2010, including 100 organizations following traditional Islam
Republic of TurkmenistanTürkmenistan Capital: Ashgabat (formerly Ashkhabad) (Population estimate, 2013: 1 million) Head of State:Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov (President) National Flag: Green, with five basic carpet patterns and two crossed olive branches appear on a wine coloured stripe near the
[English Version] Turkmenistan, bis 1991 Teilrepublik der Sowjetunion, erstreckt sich über ein v.a. wüstenhaftes Gebiet von 488 100 km 2. T. grenzt an das Kaspische Meer, den Iran, Afghanistan, Usbekistan und Kasachstan (s. Asien, Karte). Ein Zehntel der Bevölkerung von 4,8 Mio. lebt in der