-Suharto, Islamic caliphate, nation-state, Umma (Islamiccommunity) Introduction “Th e imperialists poisoned society ( umma ) with nationalism, patriotism, socialism, as they poisoned them with a narrow concept of regions and terri- tory . . . [within this context] they were poisoned with the illusion that to
between the three groups which con- stituted his Umma (Islamiccommunity) included certain elements of insurance: 1) the diya (blood money), to ensure that everyone's life should be considered inviolable, 2) fidya (ransom of prisoners of war), to ensure that one's freedom is always sought, 3) joint action
addresses the umma (Islamiccommunity) and characteristics of the diaspora in the midst of digitalization of Islam. Information technologies, asserts Mandaville, are more than a dispensing of information to ‘given communities’, they are spaces of communication where ‘identity, meaning and boundaries of
( ruhiyah Islami ), enlighten the umma (Islamiccommunity), and avoid taboo topics such as sexuality (Senja 2012:24, 27). These principles increased Senja’s doubts as to whether she would be able to write good Islamic fiction. Finally, she asked Rosa to put her into contact with a liqo (religious
their former mutual aid agreements”.
Furthermore, the concept of ‘nation’ (as in the modern understanding of people united by territory, culture or language) is absent in Islam; rather, there is the notion of the umma (Islamiccommunity), created by the Prophet following the hijrah
Umma (IslamicCommunity), sharia, and the groups best poised to defend it. By characterising their idealised imagining of Islamic society as an authentic and existing model that was undermined by modern colonial and older forms of conspiracy, Islamists could make their belief that a homogeneous and