Peter Kornicki

In the late nineteenth century the unfamiliar script of some inscriptions and coins that had been found in China began to excite the interest of a number of European orientalists. It was identified as Tangut (Xi xia) script by Gabriel Devéria in 1882, but in fact earlier in the century, unbeknown

Bjørnar Sverdrup-Thygeson

, and that these eras thus should naturally, and beneficially, belong to the historical canon of diplomacy. Keywords foreign relations of the Song Dynasty, diplomatic parity, Imperial China, tianxia , Jin, Liao, Xi Xia, tradi- tional Chinese diplomatic practices As the fish come and the birds go, so will

Benjamin Avichai Katz Sinvany

can be made about the role of the Xia and the Liao in the gunpowder narrative. There is mention of sulfur and different types of saltpeter present in only one known Xi Xia record, a legal text referring to the management of state medical storage facilities. 69 There is little evidence to suggest that


Adam T. Kessler

Western scholars of ancient Chinese ceramics have long thought blue and white porcelain manufactured before the Ming (1368-1644 A.D.), dates to the Yuan (1279-1368 A.D.). Even in China today these porcelains are still termed “ Yuan Blue and White.” Based upon first-hand surveys of sites in Inner Mongolia, Adam T. Kessler’s Song Blue and White Porcelain on the Silk Road demonstrates that blue and white was made during the Song (960-1279 A.D.) ended up in the hands of the Xi Xia (1038-1226 A.D.) and the Jin (1115-1234 A.D.). Blue and white found today in hoards was buried prior to Mongol invasions of China in the 1200s. Sites from the Philippines to Egypt have yielded Song blue and white. Also reviewed is the cobalt-bearing ore used by Song China to create blue and white.


Zong Zhang 張總


Buddhist arts flourished in unprecedented manner in both Chinese and non-Chinese dynasties. The center for cave sculpture moved to the southwest, where Anyue and Dazu are emblematic. In Dunhuang, the Xi Xia cave murals are particularly remarkable. In the Song, painters in local monasteries were numerous, while the Liao and Jin were distinguished by images in stupas and caves. Zhang Shengwen was a famous painter of the Dali kingdom. Temples, pagodas, and caves were built and decorated in Tibet, and in Hangzhou and the Yuan capital Tibetan styles merged with Chinese, the esoteric with the exoteric.

Ruth Mostern

, sovereignty over the Ordos was divided between multiple regimes, and the census did not include the Xi Xia population of the northern Ordos Plateau a Z. Cao, Shaanxi shengzhi renkou zhi , 331. Figure 5 The replacement of tree pollen with cereal and fiber pollen between the late Tang and the Northern Song

Harriet T. Zurndorfer

. As is well known, militarily the Song did not apply a grand offensive strategy. But as Wang successfully makes evident, Song strategic policy was also not hindered by the anti-military and pro-Confucian sentiments of the time. In its confrontations with the Liao and Xi Xia, the Northern Song

Jean-Pierre Drège

. L’idée selon laquelle la grotte aurait été fermée lors de l’invasion des Xi Xia en 1035 a fait place à celle d’une fermeture vers 1006 en liaison avec la brève conquête de Khotan par les Qarakhanides de Kashgar. Si cette hypothèse, avancée par Rong, est nouvelle (émise en 1996), celle qui fait du

Maggie C. K. Wan

–412). Scholars have also identified the images of donors and their pious acts in frontispieces for Buddhist scriptures, especially those discovered in Khara Khoto sponsored by the Xi Xia (1038–1227  CE ) royal family (Chen and Tang 140–143; Huang, “Reassessing” 139–141). The infusion of mundane volition and the