The role of Iranian merchants in the maritime trade of the Indian Ocean basin from antiquity up to the 16th century is often underestimated. From scholarly histories to popular culture the “Muslim sailor” is typically portrayed as being an Arab. In fact, from pre-Islamic times the principal actors in Indian Ocean trade were predominantly Persian, as attested by the archaeological data, local written records, and the names of places and individuals.
Persian text, written in 1599 or 1600, is the earliest source describing the arrival and settlement of the ZoroastriansinIndia, where they were called Parsis because of their Persian background. The...
, which is spared because he had used it to kill “frogs, ants, snakes, scorpions and other rep- tiles” (Vahman, 1986, p. 210).
374 R. Foltz / Society and Animals 18 (2010) 367-378 Animal Sacrifice in Zoroastrianism Rituals that included animal sacrifice were practiced by ZoroastriansinIndia (Parsis
(Tats) Movement is concerned, al- though it would be premature to describe it as fully developed, certain 5 Not to be confused with the homonymic ethnonym of the ZoroastriansinIndia (Pars, Par- see). In the present study, “Pars” is the designation preferred by the representatives of the people
contemporary ZoroastriansinIndia and Iran see Stausberg [2004a]). All these ﬁelds, however, are far from exhausted. Among many other things, we are still lacking a substantial study of Zoroastrian ﬁre-temples (for some preliminary surveys see now Choksy [2006b, 2007]; the archaeo- logical documentation needs
the principal focus o f the devotional life o f Zoroastrians from ancient times to the present. The major temples contain 'fires o f victory' (Ata~ Bahrdms). When orthodox Parsis (ZoroastriansinIndia) enter these fire temples daily to pray before the fire and benefit from the radiant glory o f this
History: Alternative Narratives for the Modern Era ,” American Historical Review 105 ( 2000 ): 807 – 831 .
Ringer , Monica . Pious Citizens: Reforming ZoroastrianisminIndia and Iran . Syracuse : Syracuse University Press , 2011 .
Sakākīnī , Khalīl . Yawmiyyāt Khalīl al