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Kathrin Brodbeck, Aristide Peng, Taylor Christl, Sabine Zehnder, Christoph Käppler and Christoph Morgenthaler

1. Introduction During the last decades, modernisation, secularisation and immigration have — as in many western countries — deeply changed Switzerland’s cultural and religious landscape (e.g. Baumann & Stolz, 2007 ; Baumann & Behloul, 2005 ; Campiche et al. 2004 ). Adolescents, too, are

Ronelle Sonnenberg, Elsbeth Visser-Vogel and Harmen van Wijnen

* All three authors are responsible for the design of this article. Each author wrote one of the three results sub-sections. The authors’ names are listed in the order of the results sub-sections which they wrote. 1 Introduction Interest in the faith of adolescents has recently grown in

Trevor Moodley, Karel G. F. Esterhuyse and Roelf B. I. Beukes

1. Introduction Studies focussing on adolescence and spirituality and/or religion generally indicate that they still play a role in the lives of many adolescents. Wallace, Forman, Caldwell and Willis 1 investigated the presence of religion in the lives of American adolescents by using data

Svetlana Huusko

picture of Evenki adolescents not only living in a world of stereotypes and prejudice, but also internalising these stereotypes, and in some cases trying to avoid them by distancing themselves from being recognised as Evenki. This article focuses on the existing representation of Russianness and

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Richard Nightingale and Pilar Safont

multilingual contexts (Nightingale, 2016; Safont, 2012). The current chapter aims to further consolidate our knowledge of multilingualism in these areas by presenting a qualitative analysis of adolescent translanguaging practices in online discourse. In this sense, we not only explore the online multilingual

Jen Jamieson, Michael J. Reiss, David Allen, Lucy Asher, Matthew O. Parker, Christopher M. Wathes and Siobhan M. Abeyesinghe

welfare standards (Farm Animal Welfare Council, 2006; Regmi & Gehlhar, 2001 ); adolescents are future policy makers and consumers, but they may not perceive that they possess immediate consumer power. However, the knowledge that they acquire through education (at school and elsewhere), together with

Sofia Castanheira Pais, Isabel Menezes and João Arriscado Nunes

Medical solutions are currently being sought for a variety of behaviours or conditions described as deviant. Thus, since the 1980s, in the USA and UK and more recently in Portugal, diagnosis for health situations understood as problematic seems to have become common. A range of diagnostic, practices such as those related to dyslexia in children/adolescents with reading difficulties, or hyperactivity in others whose behaviours appear as deviating from the normative, among others, are frequently used. This attribution of deviance is part of a historical, social, cultural and economic process of enacting normality and deviance, and it often goes back to the medical sphere. This relates to what Parens describes as medicalisation: ‘a process by which “non-medical” (or “life” or “human”) problems become understood and treated as “medical” problems’. Therefore, this phenomenon ‘of making medical’ includes a range of activities involved in constructing new deviance definitions for social control. Zola also explains that very often medical intervention as social control seeks to limit, modify, regulate, isolate, or eliminate deviant behaviour with medical means and the interest of health. All of these aspects have a profound impact on children and adolescents’ lives, since these still constitute historically invisible groups particularly vulnerable to victimization and labelling. Contrary to this approach, and assuming that children and adolescents are agents and not passive subjects, this chapter explores their perspectives regarding health and illness definitions and practices. The research is based on part of 10 focus group discussions with adolescents between 14 to 16 years from two public schools in Northern Portugal. We expect the results will enable a deeper understanding of the meaning of health and illness, as well as the implications of processes of medicalisation.

Bert Morrens, Liesbeth Bruckers, Ilse Loots, Elly Den Hond, Vera Nelen, Nik Van Larebeke, Isabelle Sioen, Greet Schoeters and Willy Baeyens

Environmental justice research suggests that inequalities in the distribution of environmental quality systematically disadvantage the lower social strata of society. The effects of these inequalities on the human exposure to specific chemical pollution remain, however, to a large extend unknown, especially in hotspot areas where surrounding neighbourhoods are exposed to a mixture of diverse pollution. In Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, a community-based participatory approach was set up between 2009-2010 to collect blood, urine and hair samples of 197 socially and ethnically diverse adolescents (14-15 years of age) living in the close proximity of a non-ferro industrial area. We conduct a socio-stratification of human biomonitoring results by associating the internal body concentration of three types of chemical pollution (heavy metals, POPs and volatile compounds) with individual socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnic background. Social gradients in exposure to these chemicals are assessed with geometric means, using multiple regression models, controlling for covariates and confounders. Our results show that, depending on the (type of) pollutant, adolescents with a lower SES can either have higher or lower internal concentrations. Socially constructed factors, such as dietary and lifestyle habits, play an important role in these relations. We conclude that when assessing the human exposure concentrations of pollutants, more complex patterns of social stratification emerge than can be assumed on the basis of the environmental justice hypothesis. It therefore remains important to consider the chemical environment in relation to the social environment when monitoring environmental health risks. By emphasising on transparent communication and relevant interaction between residents, local stakeholders and scientists, monitoring environmental health could enhance the empowerment of socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.

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Rana Tayara

1 Introduction Research around the impact of armed conflict on children and adolescents’ psychological state has increased in recent years 1 yet the issue is still minimally addressed. Adolescents in conflict settings are a voiceless population whose needs are often disregarded as they are

Phil Fitzsimmons and Edie Lanphar

This chapter deals with an investigation into how one cohort of avid middle school writers understood the notion of the writing process. It unpacks their insight and personal transactions and reactions to the ‘reader-writer’ response process modelled in their classroom, the own individual ‘habitus’ developed from their socio-familial environment and their reflections on writing engendered as a natural part of their writing development. What emerged from this ‘ethnographic’ study was a model of writing as ‘identity’ reaction. For these young writers, this process of making meaning through print was a deep reflective engagement with the language of text and their sense of self within the confines of their personal growth towards socio-emotional awareness. In essence writing was a reaction to becoming ‘connected’ to an understanding of ‘self.’ In other words, writing was the means by which they analysed the forces impacting on their sense of writing being a driving force in their school experience as opposed to a ritual mechanism For this cohort, writing was a reflection of their growth into ‘identity.’