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C. Michael Wagner and Jason D. Bals

sex or sexual maturation alters these responses, and ascertain if the putative alarm substance derives from a particular region of the body. A number of the findings were consistent with the prevailing predator-avoidance paradigm for fish alarm substances released from the skin after predator attack

Helene K. Larsen, Stine Lastein, El Hassan Hamdani, Ole B. Stabell and Kjell B. Døving

discovered that the European minnow ( Phoxinus phoxi- nus ) displayed stereotypic avoidance behaviour, a fright reaction, when ex- posed to olfactory cues from injured conspecifics (von Frisch, 1938, 1941). Alarm substances are believed to be stored in non-secretory epidermal cells, i.e., club cells

Renée Godard, Catherine Wannamaker and Bonnie Bowers

species of fish in the superorder Ostariophysi have shown they they exhibit strong antipredator behaviour to conserved alarm substance in feces and in other byproducts from predatory fish that have consumed ostariophysans. Our experiments examined the ability of a previously untested ostariophysan to

Gilson Volpato and Percília Giaquinto

— UNESP, 18618-000, Botucatu, SP, Brazil) (Acc. 24-VII-2001) Summary Although the skin of an injured conspeciŽ c releases alarm substance in some Ž sh species, it has been shown that such damage induces feeding behaviour rather than an alarm reaction under conditions of food scarcity. We studied chemical

Noel F.R. Snyder and Helen A. Snyder

alarm substances over a period of months generally begin to show burial responses to a variety of stimuli including such things as pure spring water or suddenly increased illumination. Snails naive to testing rarely give burial responses following such stimulation. The population of snails used in this

Jason Rohr, Aaron Sullivan and Dale Madison

ontogeny prey produce and detect alarm substances and how learning shapes their response, but surprisingly little is known about either of these topics. We assessed when in the life of red-spotted newts, Notophthalmus viridescens , alarm chemicals are produced and detected by comparing adult versus eft

Brian Mitchell and Brian A. Hazlett

Station, Pellston, MI, USA ABSTRACT Field experiments compared the chemically-mediated responses of the crayfish Orconectes virilis and O. propinquus to food stimuli, alarm substance, disturbance chemicals and a combination of food and alarm. The combination of alarm and food stimuli resulted in a very


Formica rufa J. Insect Physiol 1976 22 1331 1346 Maschwitz U.W. Alarm substances and alarm behavior in social Hymenoptera Nature 1964 24 324 327 Rosengren R. Route fidelity, visual memory and recruitment behavior in foraging wood ants of the genus Formica Acta Zool. Fenn 1971 133 1 150

Jens Krause

(Gasterosteus aculeatus) was presented with Schrecksloff, an alarm substance, wide-spread among cyprinid fishes. Sticklebacks are not sensitive to Schreckstoff and their behaviour was observed in the presence of naive and habituated chub. Naive chub responded to Schreckstoff with a strong and immediate fright

Luciana Jordão and Gilson Volpato

.g. predator attack). Such alarm substance is stored in club cells located in the skin of most of Ostariophysan Ž shes, and it is released when these cells are burst by mechanical damage (for review see Pfeiffer, 1977; Smith, 1992; Chivers & Smith, 1998). Although alarm substance has been largely investigated