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Book Reviews / Journal of Language Contact 4 (2011) 295–310 307 Petr Zima (ed.) in cooperation with Norbert Cyff er, M. Holubová, Herrmann Jungraithmayr, Rudolf Leger, Henning Schreiber, Anne Storch, and Ulrike Zoch. Th e verb and related areal features in West Africa . Continuity and

In: Journal of Language Contact
Author: Min Zhang

With data from over a thousand regional varieties of Chinese, the paper presents a comprehensive survey of ditransitive constructions in Chinese dialects and their alignment types, focusing in particular on delving in system-internal and external factors correlating with the observed typological distinctions. It starts with questioning the validity of one of Hashimoto’s (1976) well-known parameters for North-South typological classification of Chinese – i.e., the double object construction (DOC) takes the form of V-OR-OT in Northern Chinese and V-OT-OR in Southern Chinese, the latter also known as the ‘Inverted DOC’ (IDOC), – based on the fact that two distinct groups of Southern Chinese, i.e., Min and Southwestern Mandarin spoken in Southwestern China, tally unexpectedly with Northern Chinese and only allow the form of V-OR-OT. It is subsequently found that the distinction is strongly correlated with the typology of the generalpurpose verb of giving (the verb ‘to give’). All dialects with DOC possess an underived ditransitive verb ‘to give’, whereas those with IDOC in general lack such as verb, using instead the combination of a monotransitive handling verb and an allative preposition, i.e., the dative construction in the form of ‘take OT to OR’, to express the ‘give’-type ditransitive event. This finding naturally leads to the following conclusions: (1) it is the loss of the verb ‘to give’ that triggers the loss of DOC in the latter group of dialects, which consequently renders the dative construction as the only ‘give’-type ditransitive construction in such dialects; (2) the IDOC is in nature an indirective construction (dative construction) with merely the dative marker left out, and the driving force of the omission is nothing but a high usage frequency of the indirective construction.

It is further observed that the English-like dative alternation between the DOC and the dative construction existing in Chinese for thousands of years since Archaic Chinese is only preserved in a small fraction of its modern varieties. The majority of Chinese dialects have undergone a typological shift from the mixed type to either the DOC-type (predominantly Northern Chinese) or the indirectivetype (predominantly Southern Chinese), motivated by the systerm-external factor (Altaization of Northern Chinese in the former case) and the systerm-internal factor (loss of the verb ‘to give’ in the latter case) respectively

In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
In: Language Contact in Times of Globalization

(vomerine) dental laminae and the upper jaw by one continuous dental lamina. Bicuspidity of all teeth, a distinct, probably collagenous, dividing zone and the absence of both a palatinum and a palatinal dental lamina are features generally observed in fully transformed urodeles. Zusammenfassung. Die Zähne

In: Amphibia-Reptilia
Author: Arne Kalland

, it will be argued that there are features in these holistic religions that might facilitate such degradation. It is therefore far too simplistic to attribute environmental problems to modernization and westernization. Keywords : Sustainability, holism, ecocentrism, perceptions of nature, Japan

In: Worldviews: Global Religions, Culture, and Ecology

change that meet the requirements of conscientious history of philosophy. More particularly, we want to argue for the need of what we will call non-textual standards. These are features of the world of experience that must be assumed to be shared between us and the historical authors we study. While

In: Journal of the Philosophy of History
Author: Roberto Lavalle

the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea calls “rocks” and the features known as “low-tide elevations”. The former are islands that “cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own”. Low-tide elevations are features that would be islands were they not submerged at low tide

In: The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law
Language contact phenomena have been researched throughout the history of the discipline, but the intensity of the research has undoubtedly risen during the last decades due to growing globalization. This peer-reviewed volume presents twelve papers from the Second Conference on Language Contact in Times of Globalization (University of Groningen, June 2009) which deal with a wide range of topics, languages and contact situations. Five of them involve a Finno-Ugric language (Saami-Komi-Russian; Finnic-Baltic; Mordvin-Turkic; Estonian-German; Saami general), two a Slavic language (Slavic-Romance; Slavic general), two Germanic-Romance contact and three situations outside Europe (The Arabic World; Central Asia; South America). Methods range from field research and corpus analysis to historical linguistics, and both synchronic and diachronic approaches are used. The authors are Rogier Blokland and Michael Rießler, Martine Bruil, Louise-Amélie Cougnon, Anissa Daoudi, Santeri Junttila, Janneke Kalsbeek, Folke Müller and Susan Schlotthauer, Johanna Nichols, Pekka Sammallahti, Peter Schrijver, Remco van Pareren, and Willem Vermeer.
Keywords / target groups: General linguistics, Contact linguistics, Finno-Ugric linguistics, Slavic linguistics.

A gymnosperm wood is described from the Oligocene-Miocene of Hainan Island, South China. It is characterized by circular, thin-walled tracheids with resin plugs, 1–3-seriate alternate or opposite intertracheary pits in radial walls, 1–2-seriate rays, cross fields with 3–14 araucarioid cross-field pits. These are features found in the Araucariaceae and the fossil is designated as Agathoxylon sp. Fossil woods with anatomical characteristics seen in the Araucariaceae are extremely rare in the North Hemisphere after the K/T boundary. Thus, this Agathoxylon from the Oligocene-Miocene of South China has significance for biogeographic studies.

In: IAWA Journal
Author: Afifa Eve Kheir

This study examines the language of the Druze community in Israel as going through the process of convergence and a composite Matrix Language formation, resulting in a split language, a.k.a. mixed language, based on Myers-Scotton’s Matrix Language turnover hypothesis (2002). Longitudinal data of Palestinian Arabic/Israeli Hebrew codeswitching from the Israeli Druze community collected in 2000 and 2017 indicate that there is a composite Matrix Language formation resulting in a split language. Such a composite involves convergence features in congruence with stage ii of the hypothesis, resulting in a composite morphosyntactic frame. The main features of convergence are the introduction of Israeli Hebrew system morphemes, including early system morphemes, bridge system morphemes and outsider late system morphemes-in some cases appearing independently, but in most cases, in conjunction with content morphemes. There are features of lexical conceptual structures and morphological realization patterns as well. Sociolinguistic factors are suggested as potential motivators for such composite and split language formation.

In: Journal of Language Contact