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Clive Schofield and Richard Schofield

progression of the law applicable to artificial islands, installations and structures. Sovereignty claims to and maritime jurisdictional claims from lte s are then articulated and remaining uncertainties highlighted, noting recent international jurisprudence that has touched on these issues. The article

Artificial Islands, Artificial Highways and Pirates

An East African Perspective on the South China Sea Disputes

Edwin Bikundo

. 10 The importance of the area should not be underestimated, according to media reports more than $5 trillion of world trade passes through the area annually. 11 China has backed its territorial claims through a combination of building artificial islands and conducting naval patrols; while

David Anderson

coastal state by emplacing, occupying and administering an artificial island or installation there. Similarly, historic claims to fishing rights were not perpetuated. Some trace of historic fishing rights is found in the list of factors set out in Article 62(3) for foreign access in the situation where

Center for Oceans Law and Policy, University of Virginia,

| Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 2013 e-ISBN: 9789004249639 © 2014 by Center for Oceans Law and Policy and Koninklijke Brill NV Subjects Argentina on artificial islands, installations and structures Argentina on the continental shelf Artificial islands Argentina on Artificial islands on the continental shelf

Center for Oceans Law and Policy, University of Virginia,

| Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 2013 e-ISBN: 9789004249639 © 2014 by Center for Oceans Law and Policy and Koninklijke Brill NV Subjects African States on installations Argentina on artificial islands, installations and structures Artificial islands Argentina on Artificial islands in the exclusive economic zone

Erik Jaap Molenaar

new airport on an artificial island in the sea. The article concludes that the construction and use of an artificial island remains in principle within a coastal state's authority, with due regard to the rights and duties of other states and the LOS Convention and other rules of international law

Nilüfer Oral

related maritime entitlements, as well as other adaptive measures, such as island construction or fortification and artificial islands, are examined. In addition, the article explores the question as to whether measures such as maintaining baselines would constitute adaptive measures under the existing

Eleanor Doig

climate change impacts; specifically Tuvalu, the Maldives, and Kiribati. This will be followed by exploration of three possibilities currently being considered by island states to preserve their sovereignty: construction of artificial islands; land acquisition within another state; and resettlement of

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Nilüfer Oral

According to Article 87 of unclos , activities subject to the freedom of the high seas comprise inter alia freedom of navigation and freedom to lay submarine cables and pipelines (subject to Part vi of unclos ), freedom to construct artificial islands and other installations permitted under