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Julia Ostner and Oliver Schülke

multiple males, (ii) groups where individuals gain from the presence of extra males in terms of between group competition and (iii) groups subject to within group contest competition where males may benefit from cooperating and bonding. Throughout we consider both male dispersal and philopatric species

Karen B. Strier

dominance relation- ships in atelin primates. Despite the occurrence of male philopatry in all three genera, male social relations varied considerably. The strength of male affiliations was attributed to differences in between group competition for access to groups of females, while the type of male

Martha Robbins and Sarah Sawyer

male was present, suggesting a collective action problem rather than cooperation in multi-male groups. Combined these results suggest that between group competition is linked more to mate defence and acquisition than resource defence. This study contributes to our un- derstanding of the relationship

K.N. Balasubramaniam and C.M. Berman

-individual differences in reactions to contexts of between-group competition (BGC: Sterck et al., 1997 ; Majolo et al., 2016 ). On Cayo Santiago, group ranges overlap and group size largely determines priority of access to resources (Boelkins & Wilson, 1972 ; Hausfater, 1972 ; Balasubramaniam et al., 2014 ). As an

Marina Cords

associated with stronger (at least more frequent) between- group competition, at least in macaques. Blue monkeys ( Cercopithecus mitis ), and indeed forest-dwelling guenons generally, have Ž gured little in the development of the theory outlined above ( e.g. Wrangham, 1980; van Schaik, 1989; but see

strength of male afŽ liations was attributed to differences in between group competition for access to groups of females, while the type of male dominance relationships was attributed to dif- ferences in within group competition for access to individual females. Female grouping patterns and the socionomic

Joan Silk and Rebecca Frank

conditions. Barrett and her colleagues have speculated that species (or groups) that experience strong within-group com- petition may establish more hierarchical relationships and trade grooming for tolerance or access to resources. Species (or groups) that experience strong between-group competition may

Charles H. Janson

energy intake per food tree visited (WRANGHAM, 1980). In brown capuchins, observed displacements between groups at food trees affect a group's mean energy intake by no more than 47o during the period of food scarcity (JANSON, 1985). Can such between-group competition compensate individuals in large

Susan Cropp, Karen Sughrue, Lara Selvaggi, Robert Quatrone, Sue Boinski and Malinda Henry

between-group competition leads to lability of female troop membership and females readily transfer be- tween troops. Females do not form stable linear hierarchies or coalitions. Social systems with strong between-group and weak within-group direct competition are labeled as resident-egalitarian . Females

Valérie A.M. Schoof and Katharine M. Jack

competition with extra-group males, and may influence the strength and quality of bonds among co-resident males. The relative importance of within and between group competition may be an important selective pressure for the evolution of strong social bonds among co-resident males (van Hooff, 2000; Ostner