Search Results

Denise Risch, Ursula Siebert and Sofie M. Van Parijs

. ( 2013 ). Identified calling patterns are based on transition frequencies and association patterns of individual pulse trains. (a–c) Calling pattern A, consisting of pulse train types: sd1, sd2 and c3. (d–g) Calling pattern B, consisting of pulse train types: sd3, c1, c2 and sp. Note the different time

C. Eschmann, R. Moore and K.A.I. Nekaris

The study of calling patterns is a useful non-invasive method for determining population densities and the taxonomic relationships of rare or cryptic animal species. The Western purple-faced langur Trachypithecus vetulus nestor, endemic to Sri Lanka’s lowland rainforests, is severely impacted by forest fragmentation, with most remaining populations living almost completely in home gardens. Due to their shy nature, little is known about the behaviour of this subspecies; analysing the regular loud calls emitted by these langurs could allow for improvement of census techniques, clarification of their taxonomy, and an understanding of the impact of forest destruction on their behaviour. In 2007, we recorded the calling patterns of five male T. v. nestor at Talangama Wetlands. Time, duration, weather conditions, and stimulant of 253 calls were noted. Loud calls comprised three structural units: harsh barks, whoops and residuals. The average call contained 4 phrases and 3.8 residuals, was 38 seconds in length, had an average maximum frequency of 3.5 kHz, a formant frequency of 0.36 kHz, and a fundamental frequency of 0.2 kHz. Significant differences were found between individuals for the number of phrases and residuals within a call, two different phrase lengths, the formant frequency and the fundamental frequency. The earliest call occurred at 05:27 hrs, while the latest was made at 17:57 hrs. The greatest percentage of calls (73.5%) was heard in the morning (05:00-09:59 hrs), mostly stimulated by territorial battles with neighbouring troops. These results show that vocalisations can be used to distinguish individual males; as langurs are more often heard than seen, and most troops contain only a single adult male, vocalisations may be used to determine the number of troops in an area. Calls of this taxon also differed from the other subspecies, suggesting that they may be used to distinguish subspecies and their boundaries. Finally, calling behaviour differed from other subspecies. Deforestation may be a direct cause of different calling patterns. These baseline data form a valuable starting point for further studies of this Critically Endangered primate.

Masamine Miyazaki and Joseph Waas

overlapping calls ( i.e. the last call they heard) more easily. Young birds and adult males did not distinguish between calling patterns. It is possible that call overlap is associated with dominance or other quality indicators; thus, females may approach overlappers more often because they represent higher

Argo IV, Goutte, Kime and Argo

difference in the focal males’ responses to the de-escalate versus the escalate strategies. Similarly, males changed their calling strategy in response to the de-escalate strategy of the model. There was no evidence of change in calling patterns, as estimated by entropy, among treatments and between

Irelis Bignotte-Giró, Ansel Fong G. and Germán M. López-Iborra

used to run the “Overlap” package (Meredith and Ridout, 2014) and to perform all the statistical analyses. Results Diel calling patterns Five species called consistently during the sampling periods and were heard at the three survey points: Eleutherodactylus auriculatus , E. cuneatus , E

. leucorhinus and P. maculatus . Later it is affected by the social interaction and changes to multi note structure as observed in P. parvulus and P. leucorhinus . Calling pattern matches with that of P. parvulus where males add notes to calls in response to other male’s calls until 370 Short Notes Figure 2

Alexander Baugh and Michael Ryan

calling patterns. A promis- ing direction for ongoing and future studies in- volves mapping the detailed movements of mul- tiple calling males within a natural breeding ag- gregation through the use of microphone arrays (Jones and Ratnam, 2009). In addition to pro- viding a tool to test hypotheses about

Nicholas S. Thompson

observed in close proximity and subject to apparently the same cir- cumstances. In fact, the more cawing crows that were party to an interac- 114 tion, the more discriminable structured calling patterns were likely to be described. On the other hand, crows on several occasions were heard to change

Scott K. Sakaluk

studies have related calling patterns and spatial distributions to the sexual behaviour of individuals, but notable exceptions include CADE (1979a), WALKER (1980, 1983b), and EVANS (1983). Here I examine the adaptive significance of the temporal and spatial patterning of sexual activity in the decorated

Susan M. Bertram and Lauren P. Fitzsimmons

every male is included in our analyses. We provide the most thorough explo- ration of lifetime calling patterns in crickets to date. The core assumption of handicap signalling theory is that sexual sig- nalling is costly (Zahavi, 1975), which leads to the prediction that sig- nalling, quality, and