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1. Introduction As a social species, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) must routinely balance the costs and benefits of intraspecific competition with those of cooperation (Muller & Mitani, 2005 ). If a resource becomes increasingly monopolizable, as would occur when a preferred food

In: Behaviour

, 1980 ; Goodall, 1986 ), evidence from observational and experimental studies suggest the same cognitive mechanisms are not always responsible for gestures in human and nonhuman apes (Call & Tomasello, 2007 ). Longitudinal studies examining the natural gestures used by chimpanzees show that the

In: Behaviour

[When citing this chapter, refer to Behaviour 152 (2015) 493–520] Bonobos and chimpanzees exploit helpful but not prohibitive gestures Evan L. MacLean a,∗ and Brian Hare a,b a Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Box 90383 Biological Sciences, Durham, NC 27705, USA b Center for

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In: Bonobo Cognition and Behaviour

1. Introduction Comparisons of bonobo ( Pan paniscus ) and chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) lifestyles have revealed several intriguing differences between these closely related apes (Kano, 1992 ; Fruth et al., 1999 ). These allopatric species reside in the equatorial forests of Africa

In: Behaviour

[When citing this chapter, refer to Behaviour 152 (2015) 425–460] Why do wild bonobos not use tools like chimpanzees do? T. Furuichi a,∗,∗∗, C. Sanz b,c,∗∗, K. Koops d,∗∗, T. Sakamaki a, H. Ryu a, N. Tokuyama a and D. Morgan c,e a Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi 484

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In: Bonobo Cognition and Behaviour

pigs (Martan, 1968), horses (McDonnell, 1990), and was also reported for a single wild bottlenose dolphin (Morisaka et al., 2013). Similarly, chacma baboons (Bielert et al., 1980) and chimpanzees (housed in an all-male group; Riesen, 1971) have been reported to ejaculate during the night, albeit it

In: Behaviour

1. Introduction Unrelated adult chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) share food with each other, including meat obtained from group hunting, at a frequency that is unusual among primates (Goodall, 1963 ; de Waal, 1989; Feistner & McGrew, 1989 ; Jaeggi & van Schaik, 2011 ). Although males

In: Behaviour

-sex mounting among female Japanese macaques (Vasey, 2006), same-sex sexual behaviours do not always appear to convey an adaptive benefit. Although same-sex sexual behaviour is habitual and particularly pronounced among bonobos (de Waal, 1990), chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) are also know to engage in same

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