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Hao Zhang

1 Introduction Culminating three years of negotiations, cop 24/ cma 1.3 adopted a Rulebook for the implementation of several aspects of the Paris Agreement. Among the significant issues pertaining to multilateral climate-change governance under the unfccc process, climate finance continues to

Benjamin J. Richardson

provided conclusive answers to; but they are vital concerns in our era, where financial markets increasingly dominate global development. 1 This brief article canvasses how and why the financial sector relates to climate change—a relationship that I call the ‘marketscape of climate finance

Alexander Zahar

1 Introduction Since 1992 a set of state obligations on climate finance has been created, first by the unfccc treaty and subsequently by several elaborative decisions taken by the Convention’s state parties. One may think of them as forming a rudimentary ‘climate finance law’, which is

Yulia Yamineva

Routledge, 2013. 228 pp (incl. index), ISBN 978-1-84971-405-1. Climate finance has become a key topic in the discussion on how to address the challenge of global warming. Transitioning to a low-carbon and climate-resilient world will require significant amounts of additional finance

Charlotte Streck, Moritz von Unger and Nicole Krämer

Protocol’s Adaptation Fund will continue operating under the Paris Agreement. → Finance, Article 9 Parties decided to include ex-post climate finance reporting modalities as part of the transparency framework. In addition, developed countries must now report on projected levels climate finance from 2020

Benoît Mayer

change in meeting costs of adaptation to those effects.’ 10 Yet, climate finance has done little to fulfil this pledge. The Marrakesh Accords adopted at the 7th Conference of the Parties to the unfccc in 2001 established the Special Climate Change Fund, the Least Developed Country Fund, and the

Alice Venn

treaty to make reference to human rights, albeit only in the preamble. 32 Coupled with the climate-finance bodies’ low level of engagement with human rights, 33 this

Birsha Ohdedar

damage). 154 The other major issue is raising climate finance itself. Climate funding overall, whether through the gcf or alternative streams has remained far below what is required. A World Bank report suggests that fundraising for mitigation and adaptation have been woefully inadequate, standing at

Charlotte Streck, Paul Keenlyside and Moritz von Unger

achieving sustainable development and helping developed countries to comply with their mitigation targets 22 – have long been elements of the international climate finance architecture. The High-Level Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing, established in 2010 by the un Secretary-General Ban Ki