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Christian Fleck, Christian Fleck and Andreas Hess

The relationship between communism and sociology was never an easy one. Ardent worshipers of communism despised bourgeois scholarship and held sociology responsible for pulling the wool over brave working men’s eyes. In contrast, skeptical sociologists often disapproved of the voluntarism of

Bogdan C. Iacob

In 2009, American historian David Engerman published Know Your Enemy: America’s Soviet Experts , which tells the story of US intellectual mobilization against Soviet Communism and “analyzes the ideas, institutions, and individuals of American Sovietology” from the WWII-era crises until the

Mikael Nilsson

been unevenly spread. Research regarding both the Protestant and Catholic churches’ relations with Nazism is immense; the research investigating their dealings with Italian Fascism less so; and the churches’ attitude towards communism has received far less attention. In Sweden too there has been an

Jähnichen, Traugott

[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. History and Church History Communism (<Lat. communis, “common”) denotes (a) notions of a future social order in which private ownership is abolished and the means of production are owned collectively and administered by agencies of society. Consumption, i.e. the

Irving Fetscher

1. Notion. Communism today — we disregard its older sense — means three things: the philosophical and political theory of the revolutionary workers’ movement, this revolutionary (Communist) movement itself, and the (future) society which is the movement’s ultimate goal. There have been many ideals

Beinin, Joel

Communism is a twentieth-century ideology professing to be based on the thought of Karl Marx, Vladimir I. Lenin, and, in some varieties, Mao Zedong. It is an atheistic doctrine, equally antagonistic to all forms of organised religion, including Islam, but many practising Muslims and individuals

Leslie Holmes

were Engels’ views on religion. Finally considered are the sometimes contradictory policies of Communist states on religion and recent developments in the relationship between religion and communism. ⸙

Peter Rutland

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI 10.1163/187633110X528591 Russian History 37 (2010) 427–447 * ) Th anks to Valerie Sperling and Khachig Tololyan for comments on an earlier version of this essay. Review Article What Was Communism? Peter Rutland * Wesleyan University

Ian McAllister and Stephen White

problematic than that from communism to democracy, and none has resulted in such widespread feelings of popular nostalgia for the former regime. 3 The collapse of the ussr was deeply traumatic for the populations in many of the former communist states. For Russians, it is still difficult to say what

In the Steps of Rosa Luxemburg

Selected Writings of Paul Levi


Edited by David Fernbach

Paul Levi remains one of the most interesting and controversial figures in the early history of the Communist movement. As leader of the KPD after the murder of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, he successfully built up a party of a third of a million members, but by 1921 Comintern pressure for ‘Bolshevisation’ forced Levi’s resignation and expulsion. Until his early death in 1930 he remained ‘a revolutionary socialist of the Rosa Luxemburg school’ (Carl von Ossietsky), and was described by Albert Einstein as ‘one of the wisest, most just and courageous persons I have come across’. The first English edition of Levi’s writings fills a long-standing gap in the documents of German Communism.