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Authors: Donggen Xu and Huiyuan Shi

Arbitration is universally used in the settlement of international commercial disputes largely due to its inherent confidentiality. However, the expedient element of the confidentiality is encountering challenges mostly owing to public interest or other reasons. This article not only discusses the grounds of confidentiality in arbitration, but also the effective way of its helping those people who wish to respect the confidentiality in international commercial arbitration.

In: Frontiers of Law in China
Author: Teppei Ono

told her to delete the photos. As she refused to delete them, the prison staff made her leave the room and stopped the meeting. This incident actually occurred in 2012. Ms Takeuchi brought a case in court for infringement of the right to confidential communication. 1 In spite of the common

In: Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law
Author: Aisling de Paor

, presenting a range of opportunities and challenges. Developments in science and new technologies are pushing the boundaries of existing medical principles and practices, for example, the principle of informed consent and the doctrine of confidentiality. The duty of confidentiality provides that medical

In: European Journal of Health Law
This book focuses the collective attention of psychotherapists, the legal community, social scientists, and ethicists on the moral, legal, and clinical problems of confidentiality in psychotherapeutic practice. By providing timely and important interdisciplinary contributions, the book opens the way to understanding, if not resolving, the conflicting interests and values at stake in the debate on confidentiality.
India Office Political and Secret Files and Confidential print
The files detail British colonial administration and intelligence gathering. They comprise a wide variety of papers received from the Government of India Foreign Department and other sources in India, and from the Foreign Office in London, together with India Office-generated minuting, comment and replies.

Strict rules of custody meant that the printed matter, held and consulted at other locations that the India Office, periodically had to be destroyed. The full runs of such print at the OIOC/Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections of the British Library constitute a range of documentation that is not equaled anywhere else.

Close to all items in the series were classified secret, confidential, restricted or for official use only.

The main themes that the files and printed matter provide documentation for are:
• The processes by which British governmental, diplomatic, military and administrative channels collected and organized information that was deployed in strengthening its position in the competition for influence and power in Asia and the Middle East;
• The general anti-communist, anti-nationalist character of evolving British policies, and;
• The organization of the collecting and aggregating of information from (native) operatives 'on the ground' to the highest levels of policy-crafting. Close to all items in the series were classified secret, confidential, restricted or for official use only.

This collection consists of thirteen different collections that are also available separately.
Most of these collections are also available on microfilm. For pricing and order information, please contact

1 Introduction Medical confidentiality 1 is a timeless concept. From the Hippocratic Oath 2 in ancient times to the present day, the need for doctors to protect patient confidentiality has always been unequivocally expressed. The primary rationale for this obligation is health promotion. 3

In: European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance

All individuals and all patients have a right to privacy and may thus reasonably expect that confidentiality and protection of their personal information will be rigorously upheld by all healthcare professions. 2 1 Introduction Medical confidentiality 3 is a core-right of the patient; its

In: European Journal of Health Law
British Intelligence and Policy on Persia (Iran), c. 1900-1949
India Office Political and Secret Files and Confidential Print

The present edition brings together the product of all this activity – ranging through British reporting, planning and thinking on:
• the Persian revolution of 1905-09;
• the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1907 which divided the country into informal spheres of influence;
• First World War intervention;
• the Communist threat;
• the reign of Riza Shah;
• Second World War intervention;
• the countering of German influence;
• the succession of Muhammad Riza.

Dominant foreign partner
British involvement in Persia dated back to the East India Company's first trading contacts of the early seventeenth century. But by the late nineteenth century, when the country's economic life was largely in the hands of Russian and British concessionaires, it seemed as if Persia might even become a Russian protectorate. instead, the British, with their immensely valuable oil concessions in the south, emerged as the dominant foreign partner.

Information gathering
British India and London's strategic planning and policy formulation required information – intelligence on internal politics, tribal groupings, rivalries, personalities, resources, communications and the terrain – to provide “background” for political relations and practical “know-how” for military operations and clandestine activities.
Information gathering devolved in the first instance upon British diplomatic representatives in Persia. There were four players on the British side – the Foreign Office and War Office in London, the Government of India Foreign Department, and the Indian Army General Staff. Personnel manning posts in Persia were drawn from the London-based Diplomatic and Consular Services and the British Army, or from the Indian Civil Service, the Indian Political Service and the Indian Army.

Embassies and Consulates(-General)
Reflecting the perceived importance of Russian designs and of British strategic interests, the country was exceptionally well covered. In addition to a permanent British legation at Tehran from the 1850s, there were Consuls-General at Bushire from 1878, Isfahan from 1891 and Meshed from 1889, and at varying dates Consuls in Ahwaz, Kerman, Kermanshah, Khorramshahr, Resht, Seistan and Shiraz.

Political intelligence
The two central series are the Government of India Foreign Department Printed Correspondence and the Foreign Office annual political reports 1910-1948. The first, some 5,000 pages in 44 parts, prints all incoming and outgoing papers relating to Persia between 1916 and 1940; the pagination is frequently erratic, but within each “part” the documents are arranged in a continuously numbered sequence. There are also long runs of Consular diaries/summaries from the various posts, printed up either by the Foreign Office or the Government of India (though typescript became the norm from around 1933/34). The diaries have numbered sequences for each year or issue dates within the year, varying from monthly to weekly.
Transmission was extremely cumbersome. Predominantly Foreign Office posts (eg. Tehran, Kermanshah, Khorramshahr, Resht, Shiraz) made their reports to the FO in London, from where copies were sent to the India Office. Government of India posts (eg. Ahwaz, Kerman, Meshed, Seistan) reported to Delhi, from where copies were sent to the India Office in London and from there forwarded to the Foreign Office.

Military intelligence
A small Intelligence Branch was formed within the Quarter Master General's Department at Army Headquarters, India, in 1878. The wide-ranging reforms of the Army in India Committee of 1912-13 established an Intelligence Section (M.O.3) within the Military Operations Directorate of the General Staff, divided into four geographical sub-sections (one of them responsible for Persia) and a fifth devoted to “special work of a confidential nature.”
The General Staff, India, was responsible for a stream of gazetteers, route books, military reports and who's who compilations. Sources were the military attachés at the diplomatic posts and military officers in the field (particularly during the two World Wars), their Persian and other contacts, and clandestinely employed local agents. The military attachés also produced regular intelligence summaries. The Meshed consulate was an especially important listening post for developments across the borders in Russian Central Asia and Afghanistan. In 1913 the Foreign Office laid down that the collection of military intelligence was not part of the duty of British consulates, so that the task devolved almost entirely upon the General Staff, India, with some financial input from the War Office.
The various volumes of gazetteers, route books, military reports and who's who compilations have a roughly similar geographical coverage:
• Vol. 1. North-east (Khorasan, Kain, Seistan);
• Vol. 2. North & Central (incl Azerbaijan, Kurdistan, Kermanshah, Tehran);
• Vol. 3. South-west (Luristan, Bakhtiari, Isfahan, Arabistan, Khuzistan, Kughalu);
• Vol. 4/1. South (Yazd, Fars, Laristan, Gulf Ports);
• Vol. 4/2. South-east (Kerman, Persian Baluchistan).

Secret, Confidential or For Oficial Use Only
All the works were classifed “Secret,” “Confidential” or “For Oficial Use Only,” and were subject to strict rules of custody. It was also ordered that when a new edition of a particular work appeared all previous editions had to be destroyed. As a result these works survive in very few locations. The collection in the India Office Records at the British Library is unique in its breadth and accessibility.

Provenance and historical background
The political reports, diaries and summaries produced in the diplomatic posts (including the military attaché materials) were received in the Political & Secret Department registry at the India Office and were given reference numbers within its annual file sequences. They were eventually brought together as “subject” files up to 1931 (L/P&S/10) and as files within “external subject collection 28 – Persia” (L/P&S/12) thereafter. The General Staff, India, secret and confidential works are located in two internal “reference libraries” which were kept within the Military Department (L/MIL/17) and the Political & Secret Department (L/P&S/20) at the India Office. Items were received from India upon publication and were kept/disposed of according to the custody rules laid down by the originator.
All the India Office departments were subsumed within the Commonwealth Relations Office (subsequently the Foreign & Commonwealth Office) after Independence in 1947. In 1982 the Foreign & Commonwealth Office transferred the administration of the India Office Library & Records to the British Library, now forms one part of the Library's Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections (specifically, the former Oriental & India Office Collections (OIOC)).

A.J.Farrington, Former Deputy Director, Oriental & India Office Collections (OIOC, now part of the Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections), The British Library

This collection includes the sections:
BIP-1: Gazetteers and Handbooks, 1906-1948
BIP-2: Internal and External Affairs, 1904-1949
BIP-3: Who's Who, 1909-1947
BIP-4: Military Reports, 1900-1940
BIP-5: Routes, 1908-1942

Professional ethics is a science highly related to personal experience, and not only to theoretical knowledge of the profession. If we want to reach a higher quality of teaching students professional ethics we need to take into account the experience they already have. The aim of this study was to explore the notions of being an ethical psychologist held by psychology students. 64 full-time second year psychology students at Vytautas Magnus University participated in this study. In the beginning of the second year of their studies they wrote an essay ‘What does it mean to be an ethical psychologist for me?’. Content analysis was used as a method of data analysis. The results confirmed the findings of the quantitative studies about the hierarchy of important factors related to the ethical behaviour of psychologist. It was revealed that ‘confidentiality’ is the main feature defining an ethical psychologist. ‘Moral values’ including honour, tolerance, care of others, etc. was the second feature describing the meaning of being ethical professionally. The third theme of the ethical behaviour of psychologist included ‘serving to others’. The last pattern concerned the legislation of this profession (‘working ethically means working according to the laws’). To sum up, our results showed that experiential patterns of the students reflect 4 general principles of the professional ethics of psychologists (respect, competence, responsibility and integrity).

In: Living Responsibly: Ethical Issues in Everyday Life