due to factors that occurred during the conflict. 32 Blanket amnesty may be a tool to secure a cessation of hostilities, but the high amount of conflictrelapse during the 1990s demonstrates that the end of hostilities does not necessarily indicate sustainable peace.
Although there has been a
Hanna Bosdriesz and Sander Wirken
Amnesty, Revenge, and the Threat of ConflictRelapse 1095–1122
Barasa , Bribery and Beyond: Offences against the Administration of Justice at the International Criminal Court 1123–1149
agreement, that 52 per cent of them recurred, while 50 per cent of the crises that did not end with an agreement also recurred. In the ten years of the new millennium, 34 per cent of the mediated conflictsrelapsed, compared with 21 per cent of the unmediated conflicts. Mediation, then, creates less
in case of security or conflictrelapses in the post bellum stage, it is generally accepted that treaty provisions granting protection and security to investments and investors, namely (full) protection and security (FPS) clauses, 32 comprise an obligation for States to provide physical or police
‘conflict trap’ of a cycle of ongoing armed conflict and economic decline. Almost half of all countries coming out of conflictrelapse into armed violence within a decade of a peace agreement, owing both to pre-conflict characteristics that led to conflict in the first place, and to the post-violence legacy
Threat of ConflictRelapse’ (2014) 14(6) International Criminal Law Review 1095, 1097.
See for example ‘Amnesty Laws and Their Role in the Safeguard and Promotion of Human Rights’, un Doc. E/CN .4/Sub.2/1985/16.
LJ Laplante, ‘Outlawing Amnesty: The Return of Criminal Justice in