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The Johannine Farewell Discourses in Light of Greco-Roman Literature
In contrast to the common opinion that the Johannine Farewell Discourses represent solely the Jewish genre of the Testament, George Parsenios argues that features of the discourses are misread or missed completely apart from Greco-Roman literature. Evidence from classical drama, for instance, assists in reading Jesus' return to the Father as a dramatic exit and, further, accounts for the puzzling delay of Jesus at 14:31 without recourse to redaction theories. Consolation literature and the literary symposium emphasize Jesus' continuing and consoling presence, with particular attention to the Paraclete's role as doppelgänger. The thread that binds the various chapters into a coherent whole, therefore, is the utility of classical literature in clarifying Jesus' consoling presence even after his departure to the Father.

A book of consolation (Greek lógos paramythetikós, Latin consolatio, French consolation, German Trostschrift, Italian discorso consolatorio) is a literary genre that deals with appropriate behavior in the face of human suffering – especially with reference to death. In general the consolation

[German Version] People seek comfort and consolation because their lives are inevitably linked to suffering. Experiences with boundaries and distress lead to the question as to the meaning and cause of suffering and the possibility of finding consolation. I. The Old Testament speaks of human and

In: Religion Past and Present Online

A form of divine beneficence bestowed upon the pious or those confronted with worldly misfortune despite their righteousness. The Qurʾān recalls instances of God or his agents consoling some pre-Islamic figures; in addition, a number of qurʾānic verses themselves constitute divine consolation for

In: Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān Online

& Bugnyar, 2010 : dogs, Canis familiaris : Cools et al., 2008 ; wolves, C. lupus : Palagi & Cordoni, 2009 : African elephants, Loxodonta africana : Byrne et al., 2008 ). This type of affiliative act, known as ‘consolation’, has been shown to be effective in reducing the recipient distress (e

In: Behaviour
Have you lost a loved one? The loss can be inestimable, the grief excruciating. What helped you? Did someone say something comforting? Did someone offer a consolation, which you resented?
Have you ever tried to comfort someone with a terminal illness or one who has lost a loved one? Knowing how to help or what to say that is not trite, insincere, or superficial can be difficult. The point of view of a grieving person is quite different from that of those who wish to offer comfort. In a multicultural society such as ours, anticipating the beliefs of the grieving person can be even more difficult. This book explores the perspective of a grieving person. It considers the merits and potential harm of alternative comfort strategies. As a philosophical analysis of grief, it emphasizes an understanding of the beliefs that underlie grief and the usefulness or dangers of emotions. Because grief is so complex and sensitive, a narrow approach runs the risk of alienating the grieving person. The ideas in this book are expressed in a dialogue among three characters. Their discussion is broad and fundamental. Starting from the familiar consolation, “She’s no longer suffering” and the grieving person’s resentment toward the expression, the three friends articulate the value of life and the evils of death. Their discussion enriches their understanding of grief. Many consolations offered to mourners are poor arguments. Even the better ones do their work best in the context of a greater understanding of grief.

evil and suffering in the contingencies of everyday life. 5 It insists that there can be no easy metaphysical consolations for these mysteries, no grand theories that can be foisted onto human misery, no guaranteed happy ending. In the second place, tragic theology calls on us to look at the cross of

In: The Transformations of Tragedy

In pastoral care, consolation involves subjective experiences in which painful difficulties in relation to God, to others, and to the self are either overcome or are made bearable. The aim of comfort and consolation as a basic task of Christian pastoral care is to help people in situations of

In: The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online


Sexual contacts are thought to play an important role in regulating social tension in bonobos (Pan paniscus), and are especially common following aggressive conflicts, either between former opponents or involving bystanders. Nevertheless, research on the factors determining post-conflict sexual contacts, their effectiveness in reducing social tension and the nature of post-conflict sexual behaviour is scarce. Here, we collected data on post-conflict affiliative contacts in bonobos occurring between former opponents (reconciliation) and offered by bystanders towards victims (consolation) to investigate the role of sexual contacts in the regulation of aggressive conflicts compared to non-sexual affiliation behaviours. We tested whether post-conflict sexual contacts: (1) alleviate stress, (2) confer reproductive benefits, (3) mediate food-related conflict and (4) repair valuable social bonds. Thirty-six semi-free bonobos of all ages were observed at the Lola ya Bonobo Sanctuary, DR Congo, using standardized Post-Conflict/Matched Control methods. Consolation and reconciliation were both marked by significant increases in the occurrence of sexual behaviours. Reconciliation was almost exclusively characterized by sexual contacts, although consolation was also characterized by increases in non-sexual behaviours, such as embrace. Adults were more likely to engage in post-conflict sexual contacts than younger bonobos. Consistent with the stress-alleviation hypothesis, victims receiving sexual consolatory contact showed significantly lower rates of self-scratching, a marker of stress in primates, compared to receiving non-sexual contact. Post-conflict sexual contacts were not targeted towards valuable social partners and they did not confer obvious reproductive benefits; nor were they used to mediate food-related conflicts. Overall, results highlight the role of sex in regulating tension and social conflicts in bonobos.

In: Bonobo Cognition and Behaviour


In: Behaviour