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Julia Ostner and Oliver Schülke

multiple males, (ii) groups where individuals gain from the presence of extra males in terms of between group competition and (iii) groups subject to within group contest competition where males may benefit from cooperating and bonding. Throughout we consider both male dispersal and philopatric species

K.N. Balasubramaniam, E.S. Dunayer, L.J. Gilhooly, K.A. Rosenfield and C.M. Berman

-Brock, 1989 ). The second constitutes models that link ecological variables related to resources and predation risk, to contest-competition for those resources and to aspects of social structure (e.g., Wrangham, 1980 ; van Schaik, 1989; Sterck et al., 1997 ; Isbell & Young, 2002 ). These latter models

Masaru Hasegawa, Mathieu Giraudeau, Russell A. Ligon, Nobuyuki Kutsukake, Mamoru Watanabe and Kevin J. McGraw

(or “personality”) for aggression, which further depends on male traits associated with resource value and social environment (and competitiveness). Figure 1. Schematic of our experimental design in which we pitted males in contest competitions across three social contexts. The same individuals are

Carol Berman, Huabao Yin, Hideshi Ogawa, Jinhua Li and Consuel Ionica

Variation in kin bias over time in a group of Tibetan macaques at Huangshan, China: contest competition, time constraints or risk response? Carol M. Berman 1,5) , Hideshi Ogawa 2) , Consuel Ionica 1,3) , Huabao Yin 4) & Jinhua Li 4) ( 1 Department of Anthropology, State University of New York

Michele P. Verderane, Patrícia Izar, Elisabetta Visalberghi and Dorothy M. Fragaszy

pattern of social relationship established among them (Wrangham, 1980 ; Isbell, 1991 ; but see Sterck et al., 1997 for additional factors affecting females social relationships). According to socioecological models, females can compete directly (contest competition) or indirectly (scramble

Amy Lu, Carola Borries, Anna Caselli and Andreas Koenig

relationships are established and maintained (i.e., ‘extrinsic effects’: Landau, 1951b; Mesterton-Gibbons & Dugatkin, 1995 ; Dugatkin, 1997 ; Dugatkin & Dugatkin, 2007 ), and ecological conditions that may or may not favor contest competition (Wrangham, 1980 ; van Schaik, 1989; Isbell, 1991 ; Isbell & van

S. Peter Henzi, Hallam Payne and Michael Lawes

consistent with female resource defence, low levels of within-group ag- gression and only slight effects of contest competition on diet. Individual grooming bouts 1) School of Botany and Zoology, University of Natal, P. Bag X01, Pietermaritzburg 3209, South Africa. 2) Corresponding author; e-mail address

María Victoria Hernández-Lloreda, Félix Zaragoza and Fernando Colmenares

given service is more expensive to buy, the fewer are the individuals that offer it relative to the individuals that demand it. This paper uses data on grooming ( i.e. investment and outbidding competition), female aggression ( i.e. female contest competition), and male herding ( i.e. male coercion

Romy Steenbeek and Elisabeth H.M. Sterck

Aggressive interactions can serve to secure resources. These interactions determine female dominance relationships, which have been related to the monopolizability of food patches. Patches of medium size, relative to group size, cause within-group contest competition which is hypothesized to produce linear