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Rob Inkpen and Derek Turner

Introduction In this paper, we argue that questions about historical contingency and necessity are more complicated than other authors have realized, because the degree of contingency of historical processes is itself something that can change over time. We use metaphors drawn from physical

Jos Pieper

1 Introduction Research into experiences of contingency among cancer patients by Radboud University in Nijmegen and the Academic Medical Centre of the University of Amsterdam is based on the theory of the German philosopher Wuchterl on how people deal with contingency 1 (Kruizinga et al. 2017

Martina Kraml

We are like boatsmen who have to rebuild their ship on the open sea, without ever being able to disassemble it in a dock and rebuild it from the best components. Neurath 1932/33, 206 1 ∵ 1 Introduction This contribution discusses the concept of contingency as the leading paradigm of qualitative

David M. Freestone, Mika L. M. MacInnis and Russell M. Church

unconditioned stimulus (US) (Pavlov, 1927 ; Rescorla & Wagner, 1972 ). Aside from response contingency, these two task classes differ in the informativeness of the temporal cues received by the animal. Any cues that accompany the delivery of a reward (i.e. sounds, vibrations, etc.) signal that a reward has

Steven J. Duby

Introduction Broadly speaking, classical Christian theism through the centuries has espoused the simplicity of God, the freedom of God with regard to creation, and the contingency of creation. 1 By contrast, modern work on the doctrine of God in systematic theology has often censured or

Elizabeth Barry

contingency—neither fully a contingency, nor quite a necessity. It is a contingency in the sense that it is not certain to be our lot: we may not live to grow old; we may choose not to grow old. But old age is also a necessity. Until or unless we die, we cannot but continue to age” (59–60). In another

Alberto L. Siani

Forgiveness has apparently to do with either the individual-psychological sphere or with a religious/political dimension. It does not seem to be a philosophically relevant topic and, in fact, there have not been many remarkable philosophical investigations about it. One of the most significant is made in the last pages of the Spirit chapter of G. W. F. Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), where forgiveness is given a philosophically decisive function. In a first step I sketch the features and the role of forgiveness in Hegel’s text. However, my aim is not a faithful reconstruction of Hegel’s argument, but rather, starting from its categories, the development of an idealistically-inspired and systematically-attractive philosophical reflection on forgiveness. In a second step I interpret the Hegelian concepts to work out four main aspects of forgiveness, developing a partial philosophical definition of it as a) activity, and not simple re-activity or passivity; b) rehabilitation of the meaningfulness of the linguistic act; c) integral concreteness; and d) recognition and acceptance of contingency.

Stoellger, Philipp

[German Version] I. Chance vs. Contingency – II. Accident vs. Essence – III. Chance vs. Order – IV. Paradigms of Chance Chance (Contingency/Chance) and contingency are among the theologically significant constructs of conceptual history. The word contingency derives from Lat. contingere

Religions Challenged by Contingency

Theological and Philosophical Approaches to the Problem of Contingency

Series:

Dirk-Martin Grube and Peter Jonkers

In this volume, the relationship between religion and contingency is investigated. Its historical part comprises analyses of important philosophers’ interpretations of this relationship, viz. that of Leibniz, Kant, Lessing, Jaspers, and Heidegger. Its systematic part analyses how this relationship should be currently (re-)interpreted. The upshot of the different interpretations is a re-evaluation of the traditional assumption that accepting contingency is detrimental to the pursuit of religion. It is shown that a number of the philosophers scrutinized are not as critical regarding the acceptance of (certain sorts of) contingency in the religious realm as is often thought, and the systematic contributions show that it may be unavoidable, sometimes even desirable, to accept contingency when dealing with religion.

Contributors include: Lieven Boeve, Wim Drees, Joris Geldhof, Dirk-Martin Grube, Frans Jespers, Peter Jonkers, Donald Loose, Ben Vedder, Henk Vroom.

Dirk-Martin Grube

Abstract: The article first contrasts contingency with necessity, before tracing the role this contrast has played in philosophy from ancient Greece to the modern Enlightenment. The article then demonstrates the postmodern emphasis upon contingency with the help of an example: the concept lies at