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Jonathan Morduch and Jonathan Bauchet

of our knowledge and the value of supporting social reporting. Keywords microfinance, data quality, Microcredit Summit Campaign, MixMarket 1. Introduction The creation of economic knowledge rests on developing and testing theories. To complete those tests, researchers need data, often using whatever

ELISABETH KÜHN, REINART FELDMANN, ALEXANDER HARPKE, NORBERT HIRNEISEN, MARTIN MUSCHE, PATRICK LEOPOLD and JOSEF SETTELEA

In 2005 a nationwide monitoring scheme for butterflies (and diurnal moths) was launched in Germany. Coordinated by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, it started as an integral part of the public relations campaign "Abenteuer Schmetterling" (Adventure Butterfly) with German public television and an environmental NGO as partners. The core objectives of the monitoring scheme are (a) to provide a central element for the analysis of biodiversity and (b) to investigate and develop the role of butterflies as indicators for the state of biodiversity. Both are aims at a regional, national, and European scale. After three years of monitoring (2005-2007), first results and experiences are presented. We show that the use of multiple media (TV, internet, community-level activities) yielded high responsiveness from the public and high recruitment of volunteers. We further show that the quality of data is likely to qualify for scientific analyses of abundances and phenology and therefore possibly for the recognition of long-term trends. Main lessons learned for the successful establishment of a volunteer-based monitoring scheme are that (a) an institution that hosts such a project should be able to provide long-term basic financial and personnel resources; (b) the media can play a vital role in activating a minimum number of volunteers required to start a monitoring project; and (c) the motivation of recorders is the key for success. Therefore permanent coordination, support, motivation activities, continuous contacts with the volunteers, and continuous recruitment of new recorders are all essential to ensure regular data entry and the overall success of such a project.

Jean Herveg

only occur under the direct order and constant supervision and monitoring of a professional healthcare practitioner for the following purposes (. . .)” and then to finish the provision with stipulating that “The processing of medical data is otherwise forbidden”. 2 Data Protection and Data Quality

LI Zinai and ZHOU Jian

Analysis on structural changes in macroeconomic data series has been the key issue for studying data quality. This paper studies the structural changes in China’s 36 macroeconomic time series using joint estimation model, and we find out the characteristics and movement pattern for the outliers. Our results show that most outliers show up more or less in groups, indicating that there is a significant correlation between them. The isolated outliers are not the main characteristic of China’s macroeconomic time series. Nearly all the original series contain the obvious skewness and kurtosis; hence, the hypothesis of normality is significantly rejected. Most original and outlier correction series show the non-autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) characteristic, but the p value for ARCH2, ARCH4, and ARCH8 is very different.

Eliya Ribak

The Persian and Muslim invasions of Palestina brought with them large-scale changes to the whole region. It is unclear from written evidence exactly what took place in Palestina during and after the Persian and Muslim invasions in the 7th century. Many scholars ‘take for granted’ what they see as the destructive and monstrous results of these invasions and of the consequent Muslim occupation. Large numbers of excavators also state that the occupation of Byzantine sites in Palestina continued until the end of the Byzantine period, but few provide any evidence in support of such a statement. The chronological analysis of Byzantine sites in Palestina is problematical but despite the poor data quality, it has been possible to assemble a limited number of sites for which the dating evidence can tentatively be said to be reliable. These data appear to confirm the impression that the Persian and Muslim invasion in the seventh-century AD caused the abandonment and destruction of sites. They do not clearly indicate a widespread monstrous geography, however. There is some evidence for a gradual process of abandonment of religious and even secular sites. There is also evidence for the replacement of Jewish and Christian communities by Muslims. It is uncertain whether the Muslims themselves actively destroyed Byzantine buildings and settlements or whether these were merely abandoned by a shrinking population. However, several Christian religious structures that were not destroyed or abandoned sometimes became fortified complexes, suggesting a perceived threat of violence and indicating that the occupation of Palestina made it more hostile to its former rulers.

programme for data quality assurance will be agreed; and b) the capacity of at least one institution in each coastal state to participate in common assessment and monitoring programmes will be enhanced. Integrated Coastal Zone Management 15. To elaborate and implement national coastal zone management

An Baeyens and Tom Goffin

the principles relating to data quality set out in Article 6 of the directive and with one of the criteria for making data processing legitimate listed in Article 7 of the directive. 7 Furthermore, the data controller or his representative must provide information in accordance with the requirements

John A. Cigliano

professional scientists. And it could increase the likelihood that they will use the findings of citizen science projects to inform policy and management (e.g., overcoming the doubt about data quality). 19 Citizen science has and still can contribute significantly to effective and lasting ocean governance. Of

Lemckert, Penman and Mahony

amphibian surveys in south-eastern Australia. We conduct a cost benefit analysis comparing automated call recorders and single site stationary auditory survey. Each technique has its own benefits in regards to data quality and collection. Overall, we found automated call recorders to be cheaper than manual

Jibum Kim, Tom Smith, Alison Park and Achim Koch

)(Davis, Mohler, and Smith, 1994; Smith, 1997). Traditionally, empirical research in the social sciences had been intermittent, varied greatly in data quality and general- izability, focused on a narrow set of issues and/or hypotheses, and led by a senior researcher or principal investigator pursuing his or her