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Author: Ray IWATA

This paper attempts to reconstruct the history of Chinese words for “knee” by using the methodology of linguistic geography. Word forms are classified into five major types according to morphological features, and then their geographical distributions are observed. Observation suggests that dialect contact produces various types of “contaminated” forms (linguistic blends) in Chinese dialects.

Three types of blend formations are discernible: prefixed, infixed and suffixed types. As a rule, the dialects accept part of the new form, which is transmitted from the adjacent areas, as conforming to the morphology of the original form. The suffixed-type blending is currently distributed along the Changjiang basin. The infixed-type is typical of the Wu dialects, which is assumed to have accepted the northern form [kʰɑ] as the second component of a trisyllabic structure. The prefixed-type is currently observable in some northern dialects, and it is assumed that the same process might have once occurred in the northern area, where the unaspirated prefix [kɑk] changed to the aspirated one, i.e., [kʰɑk], due to contamination by the form [kʰɑ]. The etymology and historical formation of the newest type, “p-l-k” > “k-l-p”, is also discussed. Finally, historical changes of the “knee” forms are reconstructed.

In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics

Bulletin critique / Arabica 56 (2009) 596-616 609 © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI: 10.1163/057053909X12544602282475 Arabic in the City. Issues in dialect contact and language variation , éd. Catherine Miller, Enam Al-Wer, Dominique Caubet et Janet C.E. Watson, Londres, Routledge

In: Arabica
Author: Rudolf de Jong
After publishing A Grammar of the Bedouin Dialects of the Northern Sinai Littoral: Bridging the Linguistic Gap between the Eastern and Western Arab World (Brill:2000), Rudolf de Jong completes his description of the Bedouin dialects of the Sinai Desert of Egypt by adding the present volume. To facilitate direct comparison of all Sinai dialects, the dialect descriptions in both volumes run parallel and are thus structured in the same manner. Quoting from his own extensive material and using a total of 95 criteria for comparison, De Jong applies the method of 'multi-dimensional scaling' and his own 'step-method' to arrive at a subdivision into eight (of which seven are 'Bedouin') typological groups in Sinai. An appendix with 68 maps and dialectrometrical plots completes the picture.
In: Arabic Dialectology
Authors: Huan Tao and Ye Zhang

This article analyzes the permeation from the dominant dialect, Mandarin, to the Shanghai urban dialect, based on the change of xiyin syllables having the Cong initial. Combining random sampling and anonymous observation methods we investigated variations in consecutive age groups of speakers. Statistical analyses reveal that the Shanghai urban dialect is moving toward Mandarin. Under the pressure of the dominant dialect the change is in progress at the population, pragmatic, and lexical levels. These changes are explained within the framework of current theories of language change.

In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
Author: Mari Jones
King John of England’s defeat by the French in 1204 led to the territorial fragmentation of the Duchy of Normandy. Henceforth, the Norman mainland, allied to France, and the Channel Islands, allied to England, would find themselves on different sides of an ever-widening linguistic gulf. In Variation and Change in Mainland and Insular Norman, Mari C. Jones examines the way in which contact between the Norman dialect and its two typologically different superstrates (French and English) provides optimal conditions to study the linguistic mechanisms of ‘dialect contact’ and ‘language contact’. Through the analysis of extensive and original phonological, morphosyntactic and lexical data, set in their historical and sociolinguistic contexts, this fascinating study explores how advergence with its superstrates has led Norman to diverge linguistically within these territories.

. Matras, 2009 : 137–140.) Once a feature emerges in the speech of a bilingual, it is eligible to be taken up by other, also monolingual, rl speakers, and the feature may spread through the rl community following standard sociolinguistic patterns of dialect contact. Any feature may in principle be

In: Journal of Language Contact

Louisiana French. This article consists of two different parts, the first one dealing with early stages of dialect contact in Louisiana, the second one with phenomena of current language contact between Louisiana French and English. History and present are however closely linked; both aspects serve to

In: Journal of Language Contact
Author: Claire Bowern

or quantitative differences in speaker interactions at the dialect level versus the language level. In the absence of community-wide multilingualism, dialect contact and language contact happen with different numbers of community members (that is, one might assume that there would be fewer bilingual

In: Journal of Language Contact
Author: Reem Bassiouney

Leveling is defined by Blanc (1960:62) as a process that occurs in “inter-dialectal contact”. In such contacts, speakers may replace some features from their own dialect with those of another dialect that carries more prestige. The different dialect is not necessarily that of the listener. Blanc