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Maura Velázquez-Castillo and Mary Hudgens Henderson

directives’, within the framework of grammatical replication ( Heine and Kuteva, 2003, 2005 ), proposing as the source the Guaraní prospective complementizer haguã . CPS speakers use para either with an infinitive, as in (1), or with the complementizer que + subjunctive verb, as in (2), to produce a

Michael Franke

Basic speech-act distinctions apply quasi-universally across languages, but little attention has been paid so far to formally modelling the evolution of these. Even worse so, standard models of language evolution from evolutionary game theory deliver functionally ambiguous meanings: evolved meanings in Lewisean signalling games seem hybrids between assertions and directives. This has been noted by Lewis (1969) already, but has only recently received renewed attention (Huttegger, 2007; Blume and Board, 2011; Zollman, 2011). Contrary to previous modelling attempts this paper argues that a functional distinction in formal models should be based on criteria that linguistic typology uses to distinguish clause types cross-linguistically. The paper then offers two simple models that delineate assertoric and imperative meanings once by semantic denotation and once by pragmatic effect. The latter requires us to go beyond standard modelling techniques: in order to account for the dynamic meaning element of “giving a directive” we need a mechanism of co-evolving meanings and norms.


Edited by Patricia Salazar-Campillo and Victòria Codina-Espurz

The present volume, edited by Patricia Salazar-Campillo and Victòria Codina-Espurz, is a timely contribution to the field of interlanguage pragmatics. The nine chapters presented here expand the scope of research to date by including different contexts (i.e., formal instruction, stay-abroad, and online) and age groups which have received less attention (for example, young learners and adolescents). Whereas the speech act of requesting is the one that has been most explored in the field of interlanguage pragmatics, as attested by several chapters in the present volume, disagreements and directives are also tackled. This book embraces research addressing both elicited and naturally-occurring data in studies which deal with pragmatic use, development, and awareness.

Tom Goffin

1. Introduction Advance directives are written or oral statements that are intended to govern healthcare decision-making for their authors, for both positive and negative decisions, should they lose decisional capacity in the future. In situations in which the patient is mentally or

Karl-Heinz Fehr, Barbara Friedrich and Susanne Scheil

110 Liability Directive - a Useful Tool for Nature Protection? Karl-Heinz Fehr, Barbara Friedrich and Susanne Scheil* Three years ago the Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage entered into force. Dividing en

Pal Wenneras

257 A Progressive Interpretation of the Environmental Liability Directive Pal Wenneras* This article focuses on the interpretation of Directive 2004/35 on the prevention and remedying of environmental damage (Environmental Liability Directive). It singles out eight core issues which are likely

Scott Sigmund Gartner

(Bercovitch 2009 ; Bercovitch & Gartner 2006 ): Communications (facilitate exchange of information), Procedural (structure the negotiation process), and Directive (shape potential outcomes). 3 With communication-facilitation, a mediator solely provides information to the parties, like Norway’s role

Imperatives and Other Directive Expressions in Latin

A Study in the Pragmatics of a Dead Language


Rodie Risselada

As the recent hausse in pragmatic studies shows, linguistic attention is increasingly focussing on aspects of language use. Making use of recent insights developed within speech act theory, discourse analysis, and sociolinguistics, this book deals with the various expressions that were used in Latin to per-form so-called directive speech acts, i.e. orders, requests, advice, proposals, sug-gestions, etc. On the basis of a large corpus of comedy, correspondence, and instruction texts the expressions concerned (imperatives, subjunctives, future indicatives, as well as modal expressions and vari-ous other lexical expressions of directivity) are investigated against the background of the verbal interactions in which they typically occur. As regards its contribution to Latin linguistics, the present study adds a number of re-finements to our knowledge of this well-documented lan-guage, for instance with respect to the reference of the subjects of the so-called impera-tive II ending in -to, the conventionalized speech act functions of interrogative quid and quin directives, and the diachronic process of conventionalization of velim requests.

Time to Activate the Temporary Protection Directive

Why the Directive can Play a Key Role in Solving the Migration Crisis in Europe

Meltem Ineli-Ciger

and provided with, at least, basic minimum treatment. This article argues that the Council Directive 2001/55/ ec of 20 July 2001 on Minimum Standards for Giving Temporary Protection 7 (the Temporary Protection Directive, the Directive) can be an instrumental part of such a comprehensive solution. 8

Ludwig Krämer

Introduction According to Article 17 of the Treaty on the European Union (TEU), the European Commission “shall ensure the application of the Treaties and of measures adopted by the institutions pursuant to them”. The following contribution will discuss how the application of the Birds Directive