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experiments with the list pr system, became the fourth major electoral reform conducted in post-communist Russia within the last two decades. 1 It followed the establishment of the electoral competition rules in 1993, thorough amendments to them in 2002, and their fundamental change in 2005 (see Table 1

In: Russian Politics
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organizations, its own previous experience, and paths taken in the same situation by other countries. It can be assumed that the electoral reform in Russia during the pandemic not only aligns with the political regime established in the country, but becomes a step in this regime’s further development. During

In: Russian Politics

also be instrumental in skewing the conduct of an election in favor of the few. In post-communist regimes, for example, majoritarianism seems more beneficial for countries where the political arena is dominated by two actors, usually including former communist elites. Accordingly, electoral reforms

In: Russian Politics
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The 1999 Electoral Reforms in Indonesia: Debate, Design and Implementation Dwight Y. King Department of Political Science Center for Southeast Asian Studies Northern Illinois University This article describes some of the major ways in which the recent electoral reforms changed the Soeharto

In: Asian Journal of Social Science
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circumstances in which particular organisations find themselves, in order to correct these general principles. We have to do this all the more because we have no direct influence on the determination of the general tactics. Electoral Reform Comrades! The past year has been a year of struggle

In: Henryk Grossman Works, Volume 2
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PART TWO DEMOCRACY AND PROBLEMS OF GOVERNANCE A SURVEY OF CIVIC CHARACTER AND ELECTORAL REFORM IN CHINA* Cai Dingjian Translated by Kristin Lauria Introduction Is it possible for China to expand the scope of direct elections to fur- ther democratize its electoral system? It has long been believed

In: Democracy and the Rule of Law in China
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<UN> part 3 Middle Classes Engaging the State ⸪ © Merlyna Lim, ���7 | doi �0.��63/97890043�9669_0�0 This is an open access chapter distributed under the terms of the CC-BY-NC-ND License. <UN> chapter 9 Digital Media and Malaysia’s Electoral Reform Movement Merlyna Lim1 On the sunny afternoon

Open Access
In: Citizenship and Democratization in Southeast Asia

) mobilizes votes, and for its internal personnel and policymaking organization. * It is perhaps most surprising that the LDP continues in power even after Japan has experienced more than a decade of serious economic and financial problems, and despite the electoral reforms that diminished the rural

In: Critical Readings on the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan
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-election period of disunity and dissolution. Creating an incentive for party mergers that, it was hoped, would leave only two standing at the end was one reason for electoral reform. Reformists also claimed that the new system would lead to less corruption in elections and more policy-oriented campaigns. They

In: Critical Readings on the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan