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globalization present us with more and more systemic risks ( Goldin & Mariathasan, 2014 ), including more pandemics and global environmental threats ( Price-Smith, 2009 ). Within this context the COVID -19 pandemic has shown us the vulnerability and fragility of electoral systems all over the world, including

In: Elections in Times of a Pandemic – Dilemmas and Challenges

electioneering involves “a deep understanding of the intricacies of electoral systems”. 22 Such an understanding involves learning not so much from the neighbouring autocracies but rather from democracies, even if distantly located. The case of Russia, especially if coupled with the focus on electoral

In: Russian Politics

The electoral system encompasses the rules, norms, and procedures of how an election is run and its results interpreted. Taiwan’s electoral system has evolved from limited authoritarian elections, under Japanese colonial rule (1895–1945) and martial law (1949–1987), into

in Encyclopedia of Taiwan Studies Online

Sarah Birch Electoral Systems and Party Systems in Europe East and West ABSTRACT This article assesses the differences in t he des ign of e lectoral insti- tut ions and electoral outcomes in 20 Eastern and 20 Western Europ ean de moc rac ies. It finds broad similarities between t he types of e

In: Pan-European Perspectives on Party Politics

The impact of the electoral system on the level of women’s legislative representation in post-apartheid South Africa Sizo Nkalaa and Olusola Ogunnubib* aSchool of Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa; bDepartment of Politics and International Studies