the aim to increase the safety and involvement of European citizens, as well as the competitiveness of pharmaceutical industry in accordance with the principle of transparency. Measures related to falsifiedmedicine legal framework (2) pharmacovigilance system (3), as well as clinical data publication
the fight against falsifiedmedicines. The drafting of these standards directed at customs agencies was aborted only when a number of developing countries, backed by inputs from their health authorities, successfully argued that the proposed recommendations could inadvertently undermine the legal
, Hungary, Moldova, and Guinea. See Stefania Negri, ‘International Measures to Combat FalsifiedMedicines and Protect Public Health’, in A. Dias Pereira and J. Loureiro (eds.), Essays in Honour of Professor Guilherme de Oliveira (forthcoming).
36 X. Aurey, ‘Le droit international pénal de la
exploitation became a common concern at both regional and international scale. 13 The rest of these shadow benefits derived from the sale of counterfeits, including counterfeit goods with the total estimate of US$33.8–US$35.9 billion; falsifiedmedicines with US$520 million and US$2.6 billion. 14