In a long-term transformation, that begins in Antiquity but takes a crucial turn in the Renaissance anatomies, the “fibre” becomes from around 1750 the operative building block and at the same time the first unifying principle of function-structure-complexes of organic bodies. It occupies the role that the cell takes up in the cell œconomies of the second third of the nineteenth century. In this paper, I will first discuss some key notions, technical analogies, and images that are related to “fibre”-concepts from Andreas Vesalius to Albrecht von Haller and then focus on Charles Bonnet’s and Denis Diderot’s fibre oeconomies. In Bonnet’s and Diderot’s fibre oeconomies, the self-active, regulating properties of fibre-agents and their material structures, that reach from fibre bundles, tissues and membranes to apparati of organs, are united within the concrete whole of individual organized “systems” or “networks.”
. Assoc. Wood Anat. (IAWA) Bull. 1961 2 2 9
Fahn A. Arnon N. The living wood fibres of Tamarix aphylla and the changes occurring in transition from sapwood to heart wood. New Phytol. 1963 62 99 104
Fahn A. Leshem B. Wood fibres with living protoplast. New Phytol. 1963 62 91 98
Metcalfe C.R. Chalk
diameter and wall thickness of fibers and their derived values affect the quality of paper (Dutt & Tyagi 2011). Thin-walled fibers, due to their wide lumens, will easily be bonded to other fibers, which consequently increases the strength of the paper produced (Tofanica et al . 2011). Thin-walled fibers
more diverse between hardwood species ( Gardiner et al. 2014 ). The most prominent feature of TW, although not found in all hardwood species, is the formation of specialized fibers that are distinct from NW fibers by their development of a characteristic gelatinous (G-)layer ( Fisher & Stevenson 1981
Abu-Ghalyun Y.Y. Greenwald L. Hetherington T. Gaunt S.A. The physiological basis of slow locomotion in chamaeleons J. Exp. Zool 1988 245 225 231
Armstrong R.B. Properties and distribution of the fiber types in the locomotory muscles of mammals Schmidt-Nielson K. Bolis L
metabolism (Li & Wang, 2005 ; Zhu et al., 2012 ; Zhu & Wang, 2015 ) and must consume a high-fiber diet by necessity rather than by choice during nutritional bottlenecks in winter (Bozinovic, 1995 ). When fed on a high-fiber diet, small mammals increase their energy intake to compensate for low
Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
Franck, R.R. 2005. Overview. In: Franck, R.R., ed. Bast and other plant fibres. CRC Press, New York, pp. 1-23.
Gassan, J., Bledzki, A.K. 2001. Thermal degradation of flax and jute fibers. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 82: 1417-1422.
Gassan, J., Chate, A
Variations in wood cell shape within trees of Acer pseudoplatanus are described. Across growth rings the ratio of radial to tangential vessel diameter was greatest at about mid-ring, possibly associated with potential for expansion offered by the width of the cambial zone. Down sterns the ratio of radial to tangential diameter of fibres and vessels was greatest towards the tip and base of the tree. Along branches the ratio of radial to tangential vessel diameter decreased from tip to base. This variation in cell shape down sterns and branches appeared to be due to more rapid changes in tangential than radial cell diameter. It is suggested that variation in tangential fibre diameter resulted from variation in tangential diameter of cambial initials, and tangential expansion of vessels may have arisen from curvature of radial walls. The possible adaptive advantage to trees of reduced vessel diameter at the base of sterns and branches is discussed.
. Sisal fiber derived from the Mexican agave was first imported from Yucatán in the first half of the 19th century and used in the manufacture of sacks and sails. Flax (Lat. linum usitatissimum) flourishes p...