TYMPANUM FLUCTUATINGASYMMETRY, BODY SIZE AND MATE CHOICE IN FEMALE MIDWIFE TOADS (ALYTES OBSTETRICANS) by JAIME BOSCH 1,2) and RAFAEL MÁRQUEZ 1,3,4) ( 1 Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC. José Gutiérrez Abascal 2. 28006 Madrid, Spain; 3 Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Faculdade de
STARLINGS HAVE DIFFICULTY IN DETECTING DOT SYMMETRY: IMPLICATIONS FOR STUDYING FLUCTUATINGASYMMETRY by JOHN P. SWADDLE 1) and DOUGLAS A. RUFF 2) (Institute for Integrative Bird Behavior Studies, Biology Department, College of William & Mary, Williamsburg VA 23187-8795, USA) (Acc. 22-IX-2003
FOOD STRESS, FLUCTUATINGASYMMETRY AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE GRYLLID CRICKETS GRYLLUS BIMACULATUS AND GRYLLODES SIGILLATUS by SAMANTHA T. MALLARD 1,2) and C.J. BARNARD (Animal Behaviour & Ecology Research Group, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham
handedness in crabs, both starting from the normal condition for bilaterians that is “fluctuatingasymmetry” (= FA = minor random deviations from bilateral symmetry in ancestors). FA may be visualized as the base on which natural selection acts, originating either in directional asymmetry (DA, that is
Edelman, G.M., Gally, J.A. 2001. Degeneracy and complexity in biological systems. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 13763-13768.
Emlen, J.M., Freeman, D.C., Graham, J.H. 1993. Nonlinear growth dynamics and the origin of fluctuatingasymmetry. Genetica 89: 77
ideal symmetry, i.e. fluctuatingasymmetry (FA), can reflect developmental instability among the individuals of a population (Van Valen, 1962). Therefore, the less developmentally stable an organism is, the more likely is to deviate from perfect symmetry. However, an organism has the ability to correct
FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF FLUCTUATINGASYMMETRY AMONG ENDEMIC POPULATIONS OF GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS by C.A. BERGSTROM 1) and T.E. REIMCHEN 2,3) (Department of Biology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3020, Victoria, B.C. Canada) Summary Fluctuatingasymmetry (FA) has been used as a measure of