the determination of prayer times.
Tucked away at the very end of the treatise, at the closing of the final thirtieth chapter on miscellaneous problems, is a passage in which al-Bīrūnī offers his thoughts on forgeries under the name of Hermes. To my knowledge, this is the only place in all pre
The purpose of my chapter is to explore the phenomenon of an error in literature. Firstly, it is important to distinguish actual error from its mere substitute. Only the word ‘error’ has many synonyms: mistake, fake, falsification, lapse, forgery, fabrication, misleading etc. Several of these terms come from the area of literature as subjects of specific genres or literary practices. I wish to examine some of them as the new uses of literature. One example can be the genre of journal that no longer requires the true memories as a matter of text. After only 1976, it has evolved into less strict form and now, (especially after 1989) is well known as a field of misleading practices. In Polish literature we can find many examples of such execution. Having read the literary experiments designed by Witold Gombrowicz we are no longer surprised by journals that actually are fakes and forgeries. In current literature it is very common practice to bend borders of genres. However, it may as well be an example of a new genre (like pastiche or parody once were). The real question is where this thin line lies – between the genre and its evolution and between the new genre only intertextually connected with a previous form. Although this matter has already been explored in previous years, an examination of contemporary literature may lead to new conclusions. This chapter will partially discuss what is the new shape of literature. The goal is to show how closely those modifications and new forms are connected with the matter of error. It also will develop extensive research on error and its use and texture in Polish (and foreign) contemporary literature. It will bring a definition of error based on philosophy, theory of literature and literary criticism.
moved to dismiss the Claimants’ claims as being based on forged and fabricated licenses and requested an immediate hearing to address the authenticity of the disputed documents (the Forgery Dismissal Application). There were two limbs of the Forgery Dismissal Application: (1) that certain documents had
If there is a single word that can be used to describe realist works of art, it is truthfulness to the subject matter that the artist is picturing. Therefore, in literature, realism can just be summarised as the sincere and trustworthy depiction of contemporary life as it is. Correspondingly, when Iris Murdoch and Muriel Spark, who followed a conventional realist pattern in their works, published their first novels during the 1950s, they were presented to academia as realist novelists. However, these novelists were questioning traditional realist notions of truthfulness in literature in their first published works for their own purposes. Murdoch was a Platonist who was challenging the conventional concepts of mimesis and mimetic representation in literature. The same concepts of realist literature, for Spark, were the patterns that she found in clear contrast to her Catholic belief, which she represented in terms of the mimesis of creation. These qualities are also applicable to the other later novels by these novelists. Murdoch had continued to challenge the traditional concept of mimesis in the characterisations of her artist-protagonists. Spark even modified her Catholic concerns into a celebration of the position of the artist. Since the traditional realist insistence on miming the world, according to these novelists, was a problematic assertion, both Murdoch and Spark intelligibly maintained their suspicion of the practice of mimetic realism in their protagonists’ personal experiences. Surprisingly, these protagonists, who are supposed to be authentic writers, are explicitly indulged in literary forgery especially in two selected works by these novelists. This study will argue that the use of literary forgery as a recurrent theme in these works is because of the deceptive nature of realist literature which Murdoch and Spark were intentionally displaying.
The literary hoax, the art of aesthetically sophisticated trickery, is never taken too seriously, perhaps because of its inherently deceitful aspect. However, authors that were deemed serious and considered pioneers in their own fields were, in fact, hoaxers. For example, Jonathan Swift, with his Modest Proposal, forged authorship when he passed himself off as Drapier and argued that Irish peasants should sell their children as food for rich gentlemen and ladies in order to improve their condition. The literary hoax generally entails the mastery of literary discourses and genres. It encompasses three trends that vary from elaborate and clever imitation, to literary theft and the establishment of new literary styles and forms. As the literary hoax generally implies the use of a pseudonym, these three trends all have in common a will to forge the status, the function, and the credibility of the author. On a number of hoaxes, in order to reinforce the credibility of their enterprise, hoaxers take pseudonym beyond its general uses by inventing a life for their pseudonym, therefore giving them the status of a heteronym. This chapter intends to provide a brief genealogy of the phenomenon of the literary hoax, as it suffers a lack of theorization; it will then discuss how heteronymy can be the most primal form of authorial forgery and how it affects the perception we have of the figure of the author, through the French example of the Emile Ajar Hoax (France, 1970s).
Act of fabricating or producing falsely. Forgery is connoted in several qurʾānic concepts. Re-writing sacred scripture, either the Qurʾān or the scriptures of the Jews and Christians, is covered by two Arabic terms (taḥrīf, tabdīltabdīl ii, 243a ii, 243b iv, 450a iv, 450b v, 317b ). These or their
5426 ( dss F.122 [Neh1] = Neh 3:14–15). These fragments contain a number of suspicious features that led the volume editors to remove them from this publication, and to subject them to a battery of additional physical tests on the premise that they appear to be modern forgeries. 2 The editors alluded
body as the aether that moves in a circle, and so draws the sphere around. This notion exposes the fragment as a ‘post-Aristotelian forgery’. 4 The lesson to be derived from this overview is that according to a communis opinio this ὁλκάς or ὁλκός or ὁλκόν pertains to, and in some way laboured way
decapitated at Ponte Sant’Angelo in Rome.
It would take later historical writers considerable time to repair the damage Ceccarelli had wrought by spreading false information. Although his forgeries are, on the whole, rather primitive, his life and the composition and reception of his ‘works’ would