Author: Mingxiang Liu

Credit card fraud is a new type of fraud amended into the Criminal Law of China in 1997. The “credit card” under credit card fraud is interpreted as a very board concept, which includes debit card and virtually all electronic payment cards used in ordinary payment, credit loan, transfer and settlement of account, cash deposit and withdrawal. Therefore, it is necessary for the legislature to revise “credit card” under this special fraud into “electronic payment card,” and “credit card fraud” into “electronic payment card fraud,” which will be understood easily and precisely. “Use” and “fraudulent use” of credit card under this fraud is defined as ordinary use of credit card, including withdrawal cash with authentic or forged credit card from ATMs. It is unreasonable to define “malicious overdraft” as a form of credit card fraud under the Chinese Criminal Law. In the future amendment, this kind of criminal conduct shall be separated as independent named as “malicious overdraft” or “abuse of credit card” under the Criminal Law with less stiff statutory punishment than that of credit card fraud. Besides, under the Chinese Criminal Law, stealing credit card and using it is held as “theft,” which is neither reasonable nor logical. Therefore, it should be revised in the future criminal law.

In: Frontiers of Law in China

The overarching concept of fraud (German: Betrug) as a kind of property crime was not in use in early modern German law. Both in everyday speech and in legal language, only the individual types of crimes were named; criminal codes often devised quite circuitous descriptions for this group of

The Law and Practice of Citizenship Deprivation in International, European and National Perspectives
Author: Sandra Mantu
In Contingent citizenship, Sandra Mantu examines the changing rules of citizenship deprivation in the UK, France and Germany from the perspective of international and European legal standards. In practice, two grounds upon which loss of citizenship takes place stand out: fraud in the context of fraudulent acquisition of nationality and terrorism in the context of national security. Newly naturalised citizens and citizens of immigrant origin are mainly targeted by these measures. The resurrection of the importance attached to loyalty as the citizen’s main duty towards his/her state shows that the rules on loss of citizenship are capable of expressing ideals of membership and identity, while the citizenship status of certain citizens remains contingent upon meeting these ideals.
In The Dutch Approach in Tackling EC Fraud the editors provide information about the Dutch criminal and administrative systems and about the way in which the Netherlands protects the financial interests of the European Community.
The first part of this book consists of an overview of the Dutch criminal system by introducing its main participants: the judge, the public prosecutor, the police and the lawyer. Special attention is paid to administrative and penal sanctions. The second part examines the role of customs, the special enforcement agencies, the police of the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Agriculture involved in the fight against EC fraud, and the difficulties arising from administrative and judicial cooperation while protecting the financial interests of the EC.
Author: Garnett Roper

Lotto Scam Lotto Scam is a form of advance fee fraud in which the victim receives unexpected email or telephone information that they have won huge sums of money and that, in order to collect this fortune, they are required to pay an advance fee. Advance Fee Fraud Coalition defines advance fee as

In: International Journal of Public Theology

all this information, but because researchers risk invalidating consent through a form of fraud by withholding or misrepresenting information that is relevant to an enrollment decision. We argue that fraudulent disclosure can be avoided by just giving the person proffering consent a fair opportunity

In: Journal of Moral Philosophy
An Identity Crime Model and Legislative Analysis with Recommendations for Preventing Identity Crime
Author: Syed R. Ahmed
Identity crime, which encompasses both identity theft and identity fraud, is one of the fastest growing crimes around the world, yet it lacks its own identity: there is no universally accepted definition, little understanding of what the crime is or should be, and no legal framework placing the crime into a coherent and effective grouping of criminal sanctions. In this book, Dr. Syed Ahmed addresses and proposes solutions for resolving these issues and tackles head-on the various facets of what is needed to deal with Identity Crime. A comprehensive and an exhaustive study of different types of Identity Crime is conducted and practical recommendations for preventing and minimizing the impact of identity crime is presented for all to consider.

* This work was supported by the Agency for Research and Development under the contract no. APVV -15-0740. 1 Value Added Tax Fraud Schemes in the European Union The Panama papers revealed that almost 3,500 individuals are suspected to take part in cybercrime, money laundering, carousel

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice

), 167-194, esp. 185-187; M. Scho fi eld, “Political friendship and the ideology of reciprocity,” in KOSMOS: Essays in order, con fl ict and com- munity in classical Athens , eds. P. Cartledge, P. Millett and S. von Reden (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 37-51, esp. 47-51. FRAUD: FROM THE

In: Journal for the Study of Judaism

1 Introduction Because the United Arab Emirates’ ( UAE ) Civil Code regulates several legal relationships among citizens, it has a higher status in comparison with other branches of the law. Among the important issues regulated under the Civil Code is fraud – both gross and slight fraud

In: Arab Law Quarterly