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Catherine Brölmann

in the face of the biotechnology industry. Traditional knowl- edge of crops and medicinal plants, as well as plant, animal and human genetic resources (i.e. heritable characteristics), are being appropriated by multinational companies, often with the co-operation of national governments. Where such

Nicolle Zeegers

forbidding of, firstly, research activity aimed at human cloning for reproductive purposes (reproductive cloning) and, secondly, research activity intended to modify the genetic heritage of human beings which could make such changes heritable (germ line gene therapy). In the following sections, the other

that is consistent with the international law of human rights. Article 2 – Use of terms For the purposes of this Declaration, the terms used have the following meanings: (i) Human genetic data: Information about heritable characteristics of individuals obtained by analysis of nucleic acids or by other

Atina Krajewska

‘information about heritable characteristics of individuals obtained by analysis of nucleic acids or by other scientifi c analy- sis’. 22 First, although some legal scholars perceive the notions of ‘information’ and ‘data’ as distinctive, 23 the latter is treated as tantamount to the former. Th is pre- sumption

Juan María Martínez Otero

.1.1 Clinical Tests These tests are aimed to diagnose or predict a heritable human disease, to guide treatment decisions, or to predict disease recurrence on the basis of the data about multiple genes or their encoded products. 2.1.2 Nutritional Tests These tests reveal aspects connected with the

Munro

their own national identity within the Union (Levack 1987: 212). The Scottish Commissioners proposals concerning their distinct legal system and courts, the royal burghs, and the heritable jurisdictions, engendered no difficulties, while the place of the Kirk had been assured from the outset. These were

Matteo Macilotti

strongly recognised in the special category of “genetic data”, defined in the UNESCO International Declaration on Human Genetic Data as “[i]nformation about heritable characteristics of individuals obtained by analysis of nucleic acids or by other scientific analysis”. 27 Many countries have established

Ants Nõmper, HörÐur Helgi Helgason, Lotta Wendel, Jane Kaye and Susan Gibbons

or cannot be done with personal data. Some additional, special considerations arise in the context of genealogies. Genealogical information can be an invaluable component of PGDs, enabling the influence of genes and heritability to be traced backwards and forwards through generations. On the one hand