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William Daniels, Francesca Gherardi and Patrizia Acquistapace

solutions (food odor, conspecific odor plus food odor, heterospecific odor plus food odor). We found that the two species differ on one hand for their background behavior and on the other for the intensity and quality of their responses to the three types of cues. Firstly, P. clarkii appeared more active

C. Michael Wagner and Jason D. Bals

derived from any tissue increased in accordance with its mass. A persistent cue emitted from several sources suggests a broader ecological function than the detection and avoidance of a predator. Keywords sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus , alarm substance, risk, conspecific odor, heterospecific odor

Gerrit De Jonge

species, it was hypothesized that heterospecific odours were more aversive (or less attractive) than conspecific odours. It was not expected beforehand that conspecific odours would be avoided because, in hamsters, gerbils, rats and mice, conspecific alien odours possess at- tractive rather than repellent

Laurie J. Vitt and William E. Cooper

. Comparisons of tongue-flick rates by male skinks in response to stimuli arising from cot- ton applicators impregnated with female conspecific or heterospecific odours or with con- trol substances were made to test for differential responses to odours. Trials were conducted in late morning and early afternoon

Vilmos Csányi, Péter Pongrácz and Ádám Miklósi

fish model ( `Age': I5, 20 and 25 days old) interaction in the model-absent condition indicated that older larvae tend to show smaller increase in hanging in the presence of heterospecific odour in comparison to the control condition. Larvae in the model-present condition reached the 8th section later

Helene K. Larsen, Stine Lastein, El Hassan Hamdani, Ole B. Stabell and Kjell B. Døving

initially been responding to conspecific SE, and all possible combi- nations of response profiles were represented. This means that the olfactory system in crucian carp is able to sort out and discriminate between skin odor- ants from different species. Our data also demonstrate that heterospecific odours

Gerrit De Jonge

heterospecific pairs were longer than those in conspecific pairs (see Fig. 2), voles differentiate bet- ween con- and heterospecific odours; but, they made no difference with respect to alien species. Thus, odours do not inhibit approach and dif- ferences in the two heterospecific odours do not result in

Joanna Kapusta and Gillian Sales

response to heterospecific odours which are not so attractive to them as conspecific chemical cues (de Jonge, 1980). Field voles were the most amicable species with no aggressive approaches in any of the conspecific pairs tested and common voles attacked each other 956 Kapusta & Sales very rarely

Joanna Kapusta, Robert Czuchnowski and Gillian Sales

Magurskiego Parku Nar- odowego. — Parki Narodowe i Rezerwaty Przyrody 19: 127-141. de Jonge, G. (1980). Response to con- and heterospecific odours by the voles Microtus agresis , M. arvalis and Clethrionomys glareolus with respect to competition for space. — Behaviour 73: 277-303. de Jonge, G. (1983

Gerrit De Jonge and Nelleke A.J. Ketel

. 261-267. 258 JONGE, G. DE (1980). Response to con- and heterospecific odours by the voles Microtus agrestis, M. arvalis and Clethrionomys glareolus with respect to competition for space. - Behaviour 73, p. 277-303. - - (in prep.). Aggression and group formation within and among the vole species