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Author: Vladimir Orel
This book deals with the historical development of the Albanian language from prehistoric times to our days. The main focus of the book is the reconstruction of Proto-Albanian, the analysis of its relations to its ancestor, Indo-European, and its further change leading to Albanian in its present form.
The volume contains a detailed description of historical phonetics and morphology of Albanian. The reader will also find important data on the Albanian vocabulary in its historical development.
Together with the author's Albanian Etymological Dictionary, the present book makes a powerful research tool important for Albanologists, Balkanologists and historical linguists.
Edited by Jonathan A. Silk Leiden University, General Editor.
Managing Editors: Richard Bowring, University of Cambridge and Vincent Eltschinger, Austrian Academy of Sciences
It has been evident for many years that no authoritative, reliable, and up-to-date reference work on Buddhism yet exists in any language. Brill’s Encyclopedia of Buddhism aims to fill that gap with a comprehensive work, presented in two phases: a series of six thematic volumes including an index volume, addressing issues of global and regional importance, to be followed by an ever-expanding online resource providing access both to synthetic and comprehensive treatments and to more individuated details on persons, places, texts, doctrinal matters, and so on.
Illustrated with maps and photographs, and supplemented with extensive online resources, the print version of the thematic encyclopedia will present the latest research on the main aspects of the Buddhist traditions in original essays written by the world’s foremost scholars. The encyclopedia aims at a balanced and even-handed view of Buddhist traditions, presenting the most reliable accounts of well-known issues and filling gaps in heretofore-neglected areas. In doing so, it emphasizes that Buddhism is simultaneously constituted by a plurality of regional traditions and a far-reaching phenomenon spanning almost all of Asia, and more recently far beyond as well.
Volume I, published in 2015, surveys Buddhist literatures, scriptural and nonscriptural, and offers discussions of the languages of Buddhist traditions and the physical bases (manuscripts, epigraphy, etc.) available for the study of Buddhist literatures. Subsequent volumes will address issues of personages, communities, history, life and practice, doctrine, space and time, and Buddhism in the modern world.

Author: Pei-chuan WEI

There is a great number of question particles in Chinese dialects that can be traced back to the negatives bu 不 and wu 無, which appeared in the negative part of A-not-A questions before turning into question particles. It remains debatable when and how this change occurred. We pinpoint the time when these two negatives changed into question particles according to several criteria in this paper. The time when bu became used as a question particle can be roughly dated to the Later Han dynasty and that of wu to the Tang dynasty, and the characters for these two words were then replaced by others. The interaction between bu and wu in history draws a picture of dynamic interaction. Some dialects show an extension from bu to wu, and some the other way round; the former is predominant in Middle Chinese, and the latter after the Tang dynasty. The way that bu changed into a question particle appears different from wu, which can be depicted as follows: The negative bu might have been seen as equivalent to the question particles hu 乎 and ye 耶 by holding a position identical to these two particles, which lost their function of interrogation and, as a result, were supplanted by bu subsequently. As a negative, wu is not only parallel with bu in syntactic behaviors, but also overlaps with the latter in the history, which made wu turn into a question particle after bu had done so.

In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics

Kiparsky is one of the outstanding specialists in the history of the Russian language, and his four-volume work in German is clearly the best in a Western language. The only other serious work in English is W. K. Matthews' Russians Historical Grammar (London, 1960), which cannot be recommended

In: Canadian-American Slavic Studies


本文從歷史語法的角度,探討「乞」在現代閩語方言中的演變,說明「乞」在閩語中具有的功能,包括實詞語義及功能詞用法,並嘗試從方言比較的角度建構「乞」在閩語語法史上的語法演變。根據漢語歷史文獻,「乞」有乞求義跟給予義兩個方向不同的動詞用法,並透過四聲別義的手段來區別。從現代閩語方言看來,閩東方言及局部閩南方言使用「乞」作為被動標記。本文結合早期閩語書面材料及實際調查所得的語料,探究「乞」在閩語中的音韻、詞彙及語法演變。本文的結論如下:1. 音韻方面,「乞」在共同閩語中的語音形式為*kʰɨt7,只有入聲而沒有去聲。2. 詞彙方面,閩語的「乞」同時存在乞求義與給予義兩種實詞用法。3. 就語法演變而言,閩語被動標記「乞」的虛化途徑是:給予義→容讓義→被動標記。

In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
Author: Min Zhang

With data from over a thousand regional varieties of Chinese, the paper presents a comprehensive survey of ditransitive constructions in Chinese dialects and their alignment types, focusing in particular on delving in system-internal and external factors correlating with the observed typological distinctions. It starts with questioning the validity of one of Hashimoto’s (1976) well-known parameters for North-South typological classification of Chinese – i.e., the double object construction (DOC) takes the form of V-OR-OT in Northern Chinese and V-OT-OR in Southern Chinese, the latter also known as the ‘Inverted DOC’ (IDOC), – based on the fact that two distinct groups of Southern Chinese, i.e., Min and Southwestern Mandarin spoken in Southwestern China, tally unexpectedly with Northern Chinese and only allow the form of V-OR-OT. It is subsequently found that the distinction is strongly correlated with the typology of the generalpurpose verb of giving (the verb ‘to give’). All dialects with DOC possess an underived ditransitive verb ‘to give’, whereas those with IDOC in general lack such as verb, using instead the combination of a monotransitive handling verb and an allative preposition, i.e., the dative construction in the form of ‘take OT to OR’, to express the ‘give’-type ditransitive event. This finding naturally leads to the following conclusions: (1) it is the loss of the verb ‘to give’ that triggers the loss of DOC in the latter group of dialects, which consequently renders the dative construction as the only ‘give’-type ditransitive construction in such dialects; (2) the IDOC is in nature an indirective construction (dative construction) with merely the dative marker left out, and the driving force of the omission is nothing but a high usage frequency of the indirective construction.

It is further observed that the English-like dative alternation between the DOC and the dative construction existing in Chinese for thousands of years since Archaic Chinese is only preserved in a small fraction of its modern varieties. The majority of Chinese dialects have undergone a typological shift from the mixed type to either the DOC-type (predominantly Northern Chinese) or the indirectivetype (predominantly Southern Chinese), motivated by the systerm-external factor (Altaization of Northern Chinese in the former case) and the systerm-internal factor (loss of the verb ‘to give’ in the latter case) respectively

In: Bulletin of Chinese Linguistics
Author: Thomas Olander
Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed ancestor of the Slavic languages, presents a rich inflectional system inherited from Proto-Indo-European. In this handbook all the inflectional endings of Proto-Slavic are traced back to Proto-Indo-European through a systematic comparison with the corresponding forms in related languages.
Applying a redefinition of Proto-Slavic based on prehistoric loanword relations with neighbouring non-Slavic languages, Thomas Olander provides a new look at the Proto-Slavic inflectional system. The systematic, coherent and exhaustive approach laid out in the handbook paves the way for new solutions to long-standing problems of Slavic historical grammar.
Author: Michaël Peyrot
As one of the most central categories of the Tocharian verb, the subjunctive is of utmost importance for the reconstruction of the verbal system, the most rewarding domain of Tocharian historical grammar. Michaël Peyrot provides a thorough analysis of the formation of the subjunctive in both Tocharian languages, and establishes its meaning on the basis of a systematic investigation of a wealth of published and unpublished texts. A careful reconstruction of the Proto-Tocharian stage provides a solid base for the comparison with Indo-European and the derivation of the Tocharian subjunctive from the proto-language. With its focus on the wide variety of intricate morphological patterns, The Tocharian Subjunctive is at the same time a study of the whole Tocharian verbal system.
Author: F. B. L. KUIPER

-bltyalJl is not merely one of the minor problems of the historical grammar of Indo-Aryan. 2 Since it has often been assumed that the retroflex stop indirectly reflects a palatal stop [1'] or an affricate [ts] in proto- Indo- Iranian, 3 it is also of some importance for the reconstruction of the prehistoric

In: Indo-Iranian Journal
Author: Ahmad Al-Jallad
This volume contains a detailed grammatical description of the dialects of Old Arabic attested in the Safaitic script, an Ancient North Arabian alphabet used mainly in the deserts of southern Syria and north-eastern Jordan in the pre-Islamic period. It is the first complete grammar of any Ancient North Arabian corpus, making it an important contribution to the fields of Arabic and Semitic studies. The volume covers topics in script and orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax, and contains an appendix of over 500 inscriptions and an annotated dictionary. The grammar is based on a corpus of 33,000 Safaitic inscriptions.