humancapital recruitment. Contemporaneously, Western developed countries experiencing low total fertility rates (TFR) and recruitment agencies started to shift their focus towards recruiting humancapital resources from emerging Asian economic giants China and India. Both these Asian economies have a
Using the data that comes from China Statistical Yearbook on High Technology Industry, this paper examines the human capital accumulation, the R&D expenditure and the FDI externality effects on the productivity improvement of Chinese high-tech industries. Our empirical results suggest that the effects of FDI and human capital accumulation on technological progress depend in part on the adopted approaches. We believe that the dynamic model dominates the static model estimates. This paper finds little evidence in support of technological spillovers from FDI and indicate that the technological progresses are mainly rooting in human capital accumulation other than technology spillover induced by FDI in Chinese high-tech industry.
This is a documentary study of education abroad policy in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) between 1978 and 2009. By examining the dynamics underpinning the PRC state’s efforts to shape the flow of Chinese students and scholars from and into China, this article reveals the major strategies that have enabled education abroad to become a source of brain gain. It argues that China’s brain gain strategies feature three characteristics: a proactive diplomatic approach to international educational relations; strategic dependence on foreign higher education resources and a decentralized economic mechanism to raise foreign-trained human capital. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of Chinese experience for our understanding of the complex and dynamic relations between the state, the market, universities and international relations as relating to cross-border academic mobility, international educational relations, and national development in a globalizing world.
The analysis of the causes of the economic growth in countries is especially interesting when designing suitable economic policies to stimulate their growth. The contribution of diverse economic factors, especially of the physical and humancapital, and productivity improvements
Does HumanCapital Strongly Affect Economic Growth Rates? Yes, But Only If Assessed Properly * E RICH W EEDE ** A BSTRACT Although modern growth theories regard humancapital en- dowment as a determinant of economic growth rates, econo- metric research does not consistently support this view by
Religion, Technology, and the Great and Little Divergences Karel Davids offers a new perspective on technological change in China and Europe before the Industrial Revolution. This book makes an innovative contribution to current debates on the origins of the 'Great Divergence' between China and Europe and the ' Little Divergence' within Europe by analysing the relationship between the evolution of technical knowledge and religious contexts. It deals with the question to what extent disparities in the evolution of technical knowledge can be explained by differences in religious environment. It takes a comparative look at the relation between technology and religion in China and Europe between c.700 and 1800 from four angles: visions on the uses of nature, the formation of human capital , the circulation of technical knowledge and technical innovation.
This book attempts to re-imagine the purpose of the doctorate, which has historically been used to prepare leaders who will work to improve the sciences (social and physical), humanities, and professions, while articulating curriculum as a living shape where students, faculty, and institution melded in a humanist and creative process. This idea, seriously eroded by the explosion in doctoral degrees between the early 1970s (20, 000 doctorate per year) and last year (to over 46, 000)—and an explosion in doctoral and research universities that has created a crossroads for the doctorate in America. We believe the value of a doctorate is Intellectual Capital, and are particularly interested in encouraging reflection as an important characteristic of a successful quality doctoral program. We posit that a “good doctoral” experience fosters active engagement in reflection on all elements of our work—the intellectual, advisory, and pedagogical work of faculty, curricular opportunities, as well as the intellectual of the doctoral candidates through an avocation that drives research and theory in our fields. Specific issues raised in this edited volume include comprehensive analysis of programs, rethinking evaluation and programmatic coherence, doctoral degrees beyond the discipline, subject, and field, and implications of individual identity. Along with authors’ chapters, we paid attention to encourage reflection as an important characteristic of a quality doctoral program; positing that “good doctoral” experiences foster active engagement in reflection on all elements of the doctoral experience, including program and curricular issues, personal relationships, work, and the creation of a community of scholars.
This paper reviews the current literature on Chinese agricultural growth in the past three decades, and finds that fertilizers, price reforms, human capital growth, and demographic changes are the main factors for the continuous growth of agricultural outputs and farmer income. The costs for the growth include severe environmental pollutions and the incoming population aging which should be cured in order to achieve a sustainable growth.
This paper investigates the potential channels through which R&D may influence TFP growth using industry-level panel data of China’s large and medium-sized industrial enterprises over the period of 2000–2007. Comparing with existing literature, we provide a closer look of the relationship between R&D and TFP growth by decomposing TFP growth into efficiency change and technical change components using Malmquist productivity index and distinguishing between upstream R&D spillovers and downstream R&D spillovers. We find TFP grow slightly during 2000–2007, and R&D investment indeed serves as an engine of productivity growth just as endogenous growth theories argued, which is largely because R&D accelerates technical progress even it also results in enlarging technical inefficiency. However, we find a robust negative effect of downstream R&D spillovers on TFP growth, the effects of upstream is positive but not statistically significant. In addition, we do not find the positive effects of human capital on TFP as endogenous growth theories indicated, but find human capital severs as “assimilation device” for R&D spillovers both in promoting TFP growth and increasing technical efficiency even the effects on technical progress is adverse.
’s HumanCapital Determines Tomorrow’s Gap between the Rich and the Poor Economists have long argued that the root cause of unbalanced development in one country lies in its income inequality, and more importantly, the total amount of humancapital in that country. This is because humancapital or labor