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weathering, whose inter- and multi-disciplinary study yielded a comprehensive understanding of climatic, environmental and cultural aspects of Holocene human groups – both hunter-gatherers and pastoralists (e.g. Cremaschi et al. 1996; Cremaschi & di Lernia 1998, 1999; Mercuri 2008a). Specifically, a previous

In: Journal of African Archaeology
Author: John Kinahan

An archaeological survey of the Linyanti and Liambezi marshlands in north-eastern Namibia revealed a number of hunting and fishing sites with first millennium AD farming community ceramics as well as evidence suggesting the adoption of ceramic technology by hunter-gatherers in this area during the second millennium AD. These finds have implications for the archaeology of recent southern African hunter-gatherers: they suggest both practical criteria for the recognition of ceramics obtained by trade during the spread of food production through southern Africa in the last two millennia, and point to a likely scenario for the appearance sui generis of ceramics associated with Khoe-speaking nomadic pastoralists.

In: Journal of African Archaeology

[German Version] The term hunter-gatherer (Lee/de Vore, Helbling, Rao) has largely replaced the earlier ideal type in ethnology, forager (Wildbeater; Thurnwald), which formed the basis of a multiplicity of theoretical approaches, and which continues to be discussed. Classified in evolutionistic

In: Religion Past and Present Online
Author: Birgit Keding

generally accepted that the broad cultural similarities between the Early and Middle Holocene fisher-hunter-gatherers in this vast area point towards extended networks. These probably influenced their material culture, subsistence and mindscapes. But there are still open questions as to the cultural

In: Journal of African Archaeology
Author: Guy Bar-Oz
Knowledge of the Levantine Epipaleolithic period plays a critical role in understanding the transition from nomadic hunter-gatherer foraging groups to sedentary communities on the threshold of agriculture. In this study, Bar-Oz has clarified many aspects of the relationship between Epipaleolithic foragers and their prey. The Epipaleolithic foragers all utilized similar hunting methods, as evidenced by culling patterns they used for gazelle and fallow deer. Multivariate inter-site zooarchaeological and taphonomic research from a single geographical area and ecological setting (the coastal plain of Israel) provides important records of the Epipaleolithic cultural sequence. A wide variety of data highlights uniform patterns of cultural and economic behaviors related to food procurement and processing strategies and demonstrates cultural continuity in subsistence strategies within the Levantine Epipaleolithic sequence.
The American School of Prehistoric Research (ASPR) Monographs in Archaeology and Paleoanthropology present a series of documents covering a variety of subjects in the archaeology of the Old World (Eurasia, Africa, Australia, and Oceania). This series encompasses a broad range of subjects—from the early prehistory to the Neolithic Revolution in the Old World, and beyond including: hunter-gatherers to complex societies; the rise of agriculture; the emergence of urban societies; human physical morphology, evolution and adaptation, as well as; various technologies such as metallurgy, pottery production, tool making, and shelter construction. Additionally, the subjects of symbolism, religion, and art will be presented within the context of archaeological studies including mortuary practices and rock art. Volumes may be authored by one investigator, a team of investigators, or may be an edited collection of shorter articles by a number of different specialists working on related topics.
Author: John Kinahan

Bones of domestic sheep dated to the early first millennium AD are described from the Dâures massif in the Namib Desert. The remains confirm earlier investigations which inferred the acquisition of livestock from indirect evidence in the rock art, suggesting a fundamental shift in ritual practice at this time. Dating of the sheep remains is in broad agreement with the dating of other finds in the same area and in southern Africa as a whole. The presence of suspected sheep bone artefacts, possibly used for ritual purposes, draws attention to the importance of livestock as more than a component of diet in the changing economy of hunter-gatherer society.

In: Journal of African Archaeology
Author: Derek J. Watson

Evidence for the earliest food production, symbolic representation and open air .village communities. in sub-Sahelian West Africa is associated with the Kintampo Tradition ca 3600 bp-3200 bp. This signals a profound transition in socio-economic organisation and technology as available evidence indicates that indigenes of the savanna-forest/forested zone comprised mobile and widely dispersed bands of hunter-gatherers. The Kintampo was originally viewed as a product of migration from the Sahel, but more recently, a syncretic development engendered by the adoption of northern traits by indigenous Punpun Tradition hunter-gatherers has been postulated. Both models are re-considered in view of a series of excavations of rock shelters in central Ghana, including a further re-excavation of K6, which yielded material culture of both traditions. Results are supplemented by a review of previous research, analysis of archival material, consideration of the wider archaeological context of West Africa and enthoarchaeological studies. The model proposed here challenges previous hypotheses for the emergence of the Kintampo out of existing local hunter-gatherer populations.

In: Journal of African Archaeology

The Müller and northern Schwaner mountain ranges are home to a handful of tiny, isolated groups (Aoheng, Hovongan, Kereho, Semukung, Seputan), altogether totaling about 5,000 persons, which are believed to have been forest hunter-gatherers in a distant or recent past. Linguistic data were collected among these groups and other neighbouring groups between 1975 and 2010, leading to the delineation of two distinct clusters of languages of nomadic or formerly nomadic groups, which are called MSP (Müller-Schwaner Punan) and BBL (Bukat-Beketan-Lisum) clusters. These languages also display lexical affinity to the languages of various major Bornean settled farming groups (Kayan, Ot Danum). Following brief regional and particular historical sketches, their phonological systems and some key features are described and compared within the wider local linguistic setting, which is expected to contribute to an elucidation of the ultimate origins of these people and their languages.

In: Wacana
A Cybernetic Anthropology of the Baikal Region
Evenki are modern hunter-gatherers who live in Central and Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation. They are known to scholarship for their animistic worldview, and because the word ‘shaman’ has been borrowed from their language. Despite such recognition contemporary Evenki everyday life rarely appears as a subject for anthropological monographs, mainly because access to Evenki communities for the purpose of extended fieldwork has only recently become possible. In this original study of the Evenki the authors describe a variety of events and situations they observed during fieldwork, and through these experiences document different strategies that Evenki use to retain their ethos as hunter-gatherers even in circumstances when hunting is prohibited. The authors adopt the vocabulary of cybernetics, proposed by anthropologist Gregory Bateson, in order to underline the circuit logic of events that happen in Evenki land. Culture Contact in Evenki Land, therefore, will be welcomed by social anthropologists in general and specialists of Siberian and Inner Asian studies (Manchu-Tungus peoples) and hunter-gatherer peoples in particular, as well as those interested in the cybernetic approach.