of Indian languages, religions, and practices, and its structured assimilation of descendants of Indentureship. The literal cut in her paintings, as she explains, is an apt visualization of her feelings about her sense of her culture: “Becoming aware of my story and my misunderstanding about my
Suggests that the family plays a role in the production of gendered and racialized differences in the Caribbean. Author focuses especially on Guyana, and the differences between Afro- and Indo-Guyanese. First, she revisits earlier scholarly works on the Caribbean family, limited to domesticity and feminist responses. She stresses that representations of the Caribbean family serve(d) the imperatives of governance, and the social stratification, from colonial times to the present. She indicates how the Indo-Caribbean women as submissive housewives thus became opposed to the image of the Afro-Caribbean women as working matriarchs. She further discusses the historic development of the family and women's role therein among Indians in Guyana since indentureship, highlighting the strong influence of colonial manipulation.
The Caribbean diaspora is often recognised as comprising a people united through a legacy of slavery, (neo) colonialism, indentureship, racial /ethnic composition as well as contemporary immigration experiences. Still, Caribbean peoples overseas can be seen as more of an imagined than lived diasporic community given the heterogeneity and tensions that define their lived reality and experiences. More specifically, the distinct identity and subjectivities of the different national and ethnic groups that make up the Caribbean diaspora as well as the complex class, colour, gender and generational cleavages that define this ‘community’ has important implications for highlighting how the term diaspora should be used and contested when referring to Caribbean migrants overseas. These tensions are evident in the history of nationally identified organisations, serving immigrants from specific islands in the Caribbean, which have emerged alongside regionally identified organisations on the Canadian landscape. Using the results of archival research, this chapter explores how the history of Caribbean immigrant organisations in Toronto highlights the struggle for spaces in which to make identity and community claims. Nationally identified organisational spaces are explored as sites of empowerment for individuals who were silenced, peripheralised or excluded in organisations identified or essentialised as ‘Caribbean. These spaces gave voice to immigrants that ‘dentified with a cultural, racial and ethnic dynamic that was specific to their island of origin. An empirical exploration of the dynamic between immigrants of Caribbean origin is essential for not only understanding Caribbean identity but also for unpacking theoretical conversations which attempt to define the extent to which Caribbean immigrants can be understood as a diasporic entity.
indentured South Asian laborers were brought there to work after the system of Indian indentureship had been pioneered in the Caribbean. Thus South Africa not only became an intensifying locus of globalization, but also represented a key nexus of transformation from an earlier mercantile modality of South
It is difficult to make an assessment of the achievements and setbacks during the indentureship and post-indentureship eras. For some persons, conversion was crucial for social mobility but for others it was a loss of cultural identity and severing of religious ties. Scholarly debates highlight the
Dave Ramsaran & Linden F. Lewis, Caribbean Masala: Indian Identity in Guyana and Trinidad . Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2018. vii + 169 pp. (Cloth US $ 70.00)
A dominant theme in the study of South Asian indentureship is the historical and ongoing tension people encounter as
indentureship, apprenticeship, debt bondage, serfdom, and forced labor in prisons and concentration camps, and to judge the extent to which attitudes toward slavery have changed over this time.
Part One begins with an introduction by the editors that charts the wide range of labor regimes over two centuries
racism in Caribbean societies. Using works by Olive Senior and Paule Marshall, Morgan discusses the complexities of plantation societies as well as the legacy of racism and its impact on Caribbean identity formation. In the third chapter, she deals with Indian indentureship, drawing on the writings of V
, I focus on the aesthetic signifiers that gesture to indentured migrant labour and the ripple effects of subsequent migrations within their art practices. I begin by describing why deathscapes are relevant to indentureship, primarily through the voyage across the kala pani (“dark waters”; the ocean
—imperatives, are rendered free of the politics of race, gender, nationhood, sexuality. There is much room for the irruption of Caribbean history in this inquiry—a history that includes slavery and Asian indentureship. With Nanan Draws , the artist gives us an exhibition of drawings but also a series of questions