Infectious disease influences the dynamics of host populations and the structure of species communities via impacts on host demography. Species that share infectious diseases are well-known to interact indirectly through the process of apparent competition, but there has been little attention given to the role of vectors in these indirect interactions. Here we explore how vector-borne disease and host-vector interactions can drive apparent competitive interactions. We show that different facets of the ecology associated with vector-host-host interactions affect the structure of the three-species assemblage. Crucially, the patterns associated with invasion of alternative hosts, the spread of the infectious disease by the vector, and the dynamics of the community interactions are influenced by the mode of transmission. We highlight the role of alternative hosts on disease amplification, dilution and magnification and discuss the results with reference to recent developments in apparent competition and community structure.
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