For most if not all European herpetofauna, range-wide mtDNA phylogeographies have been published. This facilitates establishing the provenance of introduced populations. However, precision is contingent on the spatial genetic structure across the range of the taxon under study and, in particular, from where within that range the introduction was sourced. In the Netherlands, the common midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans, only naturally occurs in the extreme southeast and is on the decline there. Yet, introduced populations thrive elsewhere in the country. We use mtDNA analysis to try to determine the origin of two introduced populations along the Dutch coast, in the city of The Hague and the dune area Meijendel. We compiled a database of hundreds of individuals from throughout the distribution range and added over 130 individuals from both native and introduced populations from the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. The mtDNA haplotypes found in the introduced populations are associated with postglacial expansion. The main haplotype predominates in the natural range in the Netherlands, but also occurs much more widely across western Europe, north of the Pyrenees. A closely related haplotype, newly identified from The Hague, was not found in the native Netherlands range, suggesting an origin from abroad. The combination of low phylogeographic resolution and low sampling density in the postglacially colonized part of the range hampers our ability to determine the provenance of the introduced A. obstetricans populations.
Isolated distribution patches may represent local remnants of a formerly wider range or could have originated by human-mediated expansion beyond the natural range. Distinguishing between these two scenarios is not always straightforward. Northern crested newts (Triturus cristatus) in the Dutch coastal dunes are disconnected from the main species range by over 40 kilometres and whether they have been present historically is unclear. We genotyped crested newts from throughout the Netherlands for an mtDNA marker to determine the provenance of the coastal dune population. Because a closely related species, the Italian crested newt (T. carnifex), has an introduction history in the Netherlands, we also screened eight nuclear DNA SNP markers diagnostic for T. cristatus vs. T. carnifex. The crested newts from the coastal dunes carry a single T. cristatus mtDNA haplotype that naturally occurs in the south, but not the east, of the Netherlands. Therefore, we cannot distinguish if the population represents a natural distribution relict or is derived from an introduction. We find no evidence of genetic admixture with T. carnifex in the coastal dunes, but such admixture is apparent at another Dutch locality (far removed from a previously known genetically admixed population). Our study illustrates how difficult it can be to determine the origin of isolated populations.
Invasive species are considered one of the main drivers of the sixth mass extinction. Conservation solutions depend on whether a species is also indigenous to the country it invades (i.e., beyond its native range). In the case of invasive cryptic species, genetic tools are required to establish their identity. We illustrate these issues with the human-mediated colonization of the Dutch coastal dunes by Hyla tree frogs. Although previously assumed to concern the indigenous common tree frog H. arborea, European tree frogs comprise a complex of allopatric cryptic species, meaning the taxonomic identity of introduced Dutch populations warrants investigation. We sequence mtDNA for 173 individuals from native and introduced populations across the Netherlands and compare our dataset with hundreds of Hyla haplotypes previously barcoded in the Western Palearctic. Two of the dune populations carry an mtDNA haplotype of the native species H. arborea that occurs naturally elsewhere in the Netherlands. In contrast, mtDNA assigned to the eastern tree frog H. orientalis was detected in all three other dune populations. In one of these populations mtDNA of the Italian tree frog H. intermedia was also found. Not one, but three species of tree frogs have thus been introduced to the Dutch coastal dunes, only one of them being native to the Netherlands. This situation causes a conservation conundrum as some introduced populations are lawfully protected but could pose a threat to local biodiversity. Regarding the ‘true’ exotic tree frog species, all conservation options should be considered.
Species that are threatened in their native range may actually prosper as introduced populations. To investigate how such introduced populations were established involves determining from where within the natural range the founder individuals originated. This can be accomplished through mtDNA barcoding. The common spadefoot toad (Pelobates fuscus) naturally occurs in the south and east of the Netherlands and has shown a rapid decline. Yet, a flourishing introduced population was recently discovered in the coastal dunes in the west of the country. We use mtDNA barcoding to determine the provenance of the introduced population. We sampled both native and introduced populations from the Netherlands and compared our sequences to haplotypes from across the entire distribution range. The mtDNA haplotypes found in the introduced population are distinct from those naturally occurring in the Netherlands and point towards an origin in the Pannonian Basin, on the boundary between Central and Southeastern Europe. Paradoxically, the thriving P. fuscus population in the Dutch coastal dunes should be considered a conservation risk to local biodiversity, even though within the native range in the Netherlands the species is severely threatened. Our study illustrates the complicated conservation questions associated with species that are both native and invasive.
Our current understanding of the mechanisms that lead to successful biological invasions is limited. Although local adaptation plays a central role in biological invasions, genetic studies have failed to produce a unified theory so far. The bluespotted cornetfish, a recent invader of the Mediterranean Sea from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal, provides an ideal case study to research the mechanisms of invasive genetics. Previous genetic work based on mitochondrial markers has shown the genetic diversity of the Mediterranean population was greatly reduced in comparison to the natural population in the Red Sea. In the current study, we expand upon these studies by adding mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Mitochondrial results confirm previous findings. The nuclear marker, however, does not show evidence of reduction in diversity. We interpret these results as either a differential dispersal capability in males and females, or the presence of selection on the invading Mediterranean population.
Neocortex 417 Neuropeptides 6 Nonhuman primates 115 Non-invasive genetics 177 ABC Fax + 41 61 306 12 34 E-Mail email@example.com www.karger.com © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel Accessible online at: www.karger.com/journals/fpr Non-reciprocal altruism 77 Nutritional stress 115 Object manipulation 334
: www.karger.com/journals/fpr Key Words Chimpanzees W Faeces W Hair W Human microsatellites W Non-invasive genetics W Primates In the last 5 years, the development of non-invasive genetics (the use of hair, saliva, urine and faeces) has increased the possibilities for studying paternity, relatedness
Shed hair The use of non-invasive genetics to study great apes has become increasingly common [Gerloff et al., 1999; Vigilant et al., 2001; Utami et al., 2002; Clifford et al., 2003]. Apes are known to build a new nest every night and hair shed during the night can be easily found in these
instrumental to guide conservation efforts (Chown et al., 2014; Cristescu, 2015). Invasion genetics can further inform on the scenario and origins of introductions, a crucial step for adjusting legislative efforts and raising awareness towards the responsible parties (Chown et al., 2014; Cristescu, 2015). In
contamination, spraints were analysed in a laboratory designed for non-invasive genetics, free from mammal dna , including both distinct pre- and post- pcr rooms, with separate and sterilized equipment (i.e. aerosol-resistant pipette tips, disposable sterile gowns) for dna extraction, pcr (with a laminar