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Mollie Sacks and Nirit Bernstein

REFERENCES Adin, A. Sacks, M. 1988a. Water quality and emitter clogging relationship in wastewater irrigation. In: Implemanting Water Reuse. Proc. Water Reuse Symposium IV, Aug. 2-7, 1987, Denver, CO, pp. 517-530. Adin, A., Sacks, M. 1988b. Emitter clogging characterization in

Yossef Rapoport and Ido Shahar

Few places on earth have been as dependent on irrigation works as the region of the Fayyum, in Middle Egypt. The Fayyum lies in a large depression of the Libyan Desert, 25 kilometres west of the Nile, to which it is linked by a long canal known as the Baḥr Yūsuf. Because of its topography and

Ellen R. Graber and Zev Gerstl

organic-carbon in the unsaturated zone under land irrigated by waste-water Effluent. Res. J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 62: 861-866. Amiri, F., Bornick, H., Worch, E. 2005. Sorption of phenols onto sandy aquifer material: the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Water Res. 39: 933


Maurits W. Ertsen

Irrigation is an obvious blessing that often disguises long-term problems. It provided food for ancient civilizations by improving growing conditions for crops, but could cause crop failure by increasing soil salinity or vulnerability to climate change. In the modern Indus Basin in Pakistan irrigation may be heading for disaster as groundwater levels drop dramatically. In the early twentieth century, Indus Valley groundwater levels rose because of large-scale irrigation development. About fifty years ago, tube wells were installed to lower groundwater levels. These same tube wells are now blamed for depleting the groundwater. Perhaps the anti-landscape being created today is the old, dry landscape of the eighteenth century. When taking a closer look at the Indus Basin, a period of some two centuries shows the importance of human agency in anti-landscape creation. In the Indus, one encounters human construction of irrigated landscapes, their potential turn into anti-landscapes, and the human responses creating other, better irrigated landscapes. Studying the Indus yields new, interesting questions in the debate on the collapse of ancient civilizations – and potentially our own.

Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) and Rathbone, Dominic (London)

[German version] Irrigation means the artificial provision of water to fields in order to enable or intensify plant growth. It supported cultivation in rain-fed regions (attested as early as the 5th millennium BC in western Iran), but its primary significance was in areas whose productivity

David J. Mattingly, Youssef Bokbot, Martin Sterry, Aurelie Cuénod, Corisande Fenwick, Maria Carmela Gatto, Nick Ray, Louise Rayne, Katrien Janin, Andrew Lamb, Niccoló Mugnai and Julia Nikolaus

-1600 construction. Many of these have been partially planned, but not fully published (Kölbl et al. 2003). Preliminary satellite remote sensing located extensive archaeological remains of hundreds of sites including hilltop and oasis settlements, cairn cemeteries of pre-Islamic type, irrigation systems

Alon Ben-Gal

olive cultivars irrigated with treated industrial wastewater. Agricultural Water Management 96: 616-626. Aragues, R., Puy, J., Isidoro, D. 2004. Vegetative growth response of young olive trees (Olea europaea L., cv. Arbequina) to soil salinity and waterlogging. Plant Soil 258: 69

Uzi Kafkafi

nursery. Agron. J. 1990 82 600 606 Bar-Yosef B. Kafkafi U. Rates of growth and nutrient uptake of irrigated corn as affected by N and P fertilization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 1972 36 931 936 Bar-Yosef B. Stammer C. Sagiv B. Growth of trickle irrigated tomato as related to rooting volume and uptake of

Chen Jing, Kan Shizuan and Tong Zhihui

Th e China Nonprofi t Review 2 (2010) 83-99 CNPR © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI: 10.1163/187650910X12605098379094 Available online at On the Applicability of “Provision-Appropriation” Th eory to Irrigation Management: An Analysis Based on Institutional

Uzi Kafkafi

examples. Water Sci. Technol. 34: 219-226. Banin, A., Fish, A. 1995. Secondary desertification due to salination of intensively irrigated lands—the Israeli experience. Environ. Monit. Assesss. 37: 17-37. Bar, Y., Apelbaum, A., Kafkafi, U., Goren, R. 1998. Relationship between chloride and