Laurent SAGART

1 Introduction Like Old Vietnamese, Written Burmese and Proto-Hmong-Mien, the Kra-Dai languages exhibit a phonological typology strongly influenced by a form of Chinese that existed between c. 200 BCE , when Qín Shǐ Huáng’s conquering armies for the first time brought Chinese into contact with Kra-Dai


Peter Norquest

In A Phonological Reconstruction of Proto-Hlai, Norquest presents a reconstruction of Proto-Hlai based on data from twelve Hlai languages spoken on Hainan, China. This reconstruction includes chapters on both the Proto-Hlai initials and rimes, and original sesquisyllabic forms are shown to be necessary to account for the reflexes between the daughter languages. A comparison is made between Proto-Hlai and Proto-Tai, and a preliminary reconstruction of Proto Southern Kra-Dai (the immediate ancestor of Proto-Hlai) is performed. When this is compared with Proto-Hlai, it is shown that several important sound changes occurred between Pre-Hlai and Proto-Hlai. The aberrant Jiamao language is also examined, focusing on its complex contact relationships with other Hlai languages.


respect to Tai-Kadai (also known as Daic or Kra-Dai) languages, Hmong-Mien languages and Vietnamese (Chinese Loanwords in Vietnamese), the linguistic influence of Chinese has been deep, though not comp...


The Hlai (Chinese Lí 黎) languages comprise one of the four main branches of the Kra-Dai (also known as Tai-Kadai) phylum. They are spoken almost exclusively on Hǎinán, China, and their speakers were very likely the first inhabitants of the island. The Hlai are currently the largest "minority group

Yen-ling Chen

different reconstructions of Proto-Ong-Be consonants and demonstrates how they reflect the phonological system of Ong-Be at different times, which helps us better understand sound change in Ong-Be. The classification of Ong-Be within the Kra-Dai language family is beyond the scope of this article and will

John Whitman and Mark J. Hudson

, perhaps from Shandong, carrying Chinese cereals to Taiwan, may also have transmitted farming among the coastally focused fisher-hunter-gatherers of Fujian and eastern Guangdong, which have strong cultural links to each other and to Taiwan.” This is consistent with Sagart’s (2004) argument that the Kra-Dai

Tom Hoogervorst

in the work under review. Despite the author’s apparent support for the view that the Kra-Dai languages constitute a Formosan offshoot (p. 9, footnote 17) and that the Sino-Tibetan language family may ultimately be related (pp. 16-7), very little comparative data from any language outside the

Alexander Vovin

following question: “Can parallels be cited (preferably within Kra-Dai) for velar codas conditioning the raising and backing of *a?” Apart from the simple observation that such a fact can be easily explained through general phonetics, the examples of velar codas conditioning the raising and backing of *a

family from “Tai-Kadai” to “Kra-Dai.” 12 Based on the results of my fieldwork research, the sound system of Hlai (Gei dialect) contains the following consonants: /p, ph, ɓ, m, f, v, t, th, ɗ, n, l, ɬ, r, ts, tsh, s, z, N, k, kh, g, ŋ, ʔ, h/. /N/ indicates alveolo-palatal nasal. Vowels include: /a

George van Driem

, Leipzig, Karl W. Hiersemann, 1900’, T‘oung Pao (Série ii ) ii : 76–87; Gustave Schlegel. 1902. Siamese Studies ( T‘oung Pao , New Series ii , Volume ii , Supplement). Leiden: Brill. 25 Weera Ostapirat. 2005. ‘Kra-Dai and Austronesian: Notes on phonological correspondences and vocabulary