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Clive Schofield and Richard Schofield

Convention have received as much attention and critical commentary as those contained in Article 121 of unclos . In contrast, low-tide elevations ( lte s), that is, parts of the sea floor which are covered at high tide but emerge at low tide, have excited far less attention and commentary. Recent events

Singapore

Report of the Conference on Climate Change and the Law of the Sea: Adapting the Law of the Sea to Address the Challenges of Climate Change, Centre for International Law, National University of Singapore, 13–14 March 2018.

Millicent McCreath

features from their status as fully entitled islands to mere rocks, or from rocks to low-tide elevations ( LTE s). This demotion could lead to a corresponding reduction in maritime zone entitlement. Also at risk is a State’s ‘archipelagic state’ status, as any reduction in land area could result in the

David Anderson

the breadth of its territorial sea from, say, three nautical miles (nm) to the maximum limit of 12 nm. Sovereignty over the belt of sea between 3 and 12 nm is acquired through the law of the sea. Furthermore, Article 13 of the Convention has the effect that where a low-tide elevation ( lte ) lies

Vincent P. Cogliati-Bantz

features were low-tide elevations ( lte ) not entitled to maritime zones ( losc Article 13). Contrary to the Philippine view, it concluded that McKennan Reef remained above water at high tide. It partly disagreed on Gaven Reef, concluding that only Gaven Reef (South) was an lte . All the other features

Climate Change and Changing Coasts

Geophysical and Jurisdictional Implications of Sea Level Rise for Pacific Island States

Clive Schofield

121(2) of losc , to one of the categories of insular formations from which only restricted maritime claims can be made such as a “rock” ( losc , Article 121(3)) 86 or a low tide elevation ( lte ) (features that are exposed at low tide but are submerged at high tide) ( losc , Article 13), 87 or even

Sea Level Rise and Impacts on Maritime Zones and Limits

The Work of the ila Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise

David Freestone, Davor Vidas and Alejandra Torres Camprubí

(2)). The low water line of low tide elevations ( lte ) may also be used to measure maritime zones if the lte is situated “wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial sea from the mainland or an island.” (Art 13(1), losc ) All these features are susceptible to change. 65

Sophia Kopela

Sovereignty over South Ledge: ‘Low-Tide Elevations’ and Acquisition of Territory Th e ICJ did not face specifi c problems in its adjudication on the sovereignty over South Ledge, a ‘Low-Tide Elevation’ (LTE), because it abided by its pre- vious jurisprudence on the appropriation of LTEs. In the Qatar

Series:

Günther Handl

close proximity to structures in the sea that the country has built up into artificial islands in the South China Sea. 76 Several locations potentially designated to receive such power sources are, according to the 2016 judgment of the tribunal in the South China Sea arbitration, 77 low-tide

International Law and Sea Level Rise

Report of the International Law Association Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise

Davor Vidas, David Freestone and Jane McAdam

, LOSC . For example, the low-water line of islands may be used to measure maritime zones (Article 121(2)). The low-water line of low-tide elevations ( LTE ) may also be used to measure maritime zones if the LTE is situated ‘wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial

International Law and Sea Level Rise

Report of the International Law Association Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise

Series:

Davor Vidas, David Freestone and Jane McAdam

, LOSC . For example, the low-water line of islands may be used to measure maritime zones (Article 121(2)). The low-water line of low-tide elevations ( LTE ) may also be used to measure maritime zones if the LTE is situated ‘wholly or partly at a distance not exceeding the breadth of the territorial