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Author: Michael Talbot

European privateers in the Eastern Mediterranean, resulting in new Ottoman legal and strengthened naval responses to the violence they committed. 8 The extent of the ability of the Ottomans to respond to maritime violence has been the subject of some discussion, with Edhem Eldem arguing that they were

In: Journal of Early Modern History

the Indian Ocean that developed out of this long history of maritime exploration and exploitation. This neglect has led to a misconstruction of the nature of maritime violence in the pre-modern Indian Ocean that has significantly shaped discussions about Asian piracy. Presupposing that the pre

In: Journal of Early Modern History
Brill's European History and Culture E-Books Online, Collection 2018 is the electronic version of the book publication program of Brill in the field of European History and Culture in 2018.

Coverage:
Early Modern History, Modern History, Global History, History of Central and Eastern Europe, Atlantic History, Jewish History, Church History, Reformation History, History of Ideas, History of Science, Book History, History of Warfare

This E-Book Collection is part of Brill's European History and Culture E-Books Online Collection.

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For other pricing options, consortium arrangements and free 30-day trials contact us at sales-us@brill.com (the Americas) or sales-nl@brill.com (Europe, Middle East, Africa & Asia-Pacific).
Author: Adam Clulow

themselves on the success of their activities. The Company had, they believed, succeeded in turning an uninspiring provincial backwater, useful mainly for obtaining provisions, into an important center for maritime violence. In fact, there was nothing new about these kinds of operations. Although their

In: Journal of Early Modern History
In Naval Warfare and Maritime Conflict in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age Mediterranean, Jeffrey P. Emanuel examines the evidence for maritime violence in the Mediterranean region during both the Late Bronze Age and the tumultuous transition to the Early Iron Age in the years surrounding the turn of the 12th century BCE.

There has traditionally been little differentiation between the methods of armed conflict engaged in during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, on both the coasts and the open seas, while polities have been alternately characterized as legitimate martial actors and as state sponsors of piracy. By utilizing material, documentary, and iconographic evidence and delineating between the many forms of armed conflict, Emanuel provides an up-to-date assessment not only of the nature and frequency of warfare, raiding, piracy, and other forms of maritime conflict in the Late Bronze Age and Late Bronze-Early Iron Age transition, but also of the extent to which modern views about this activity remain the product of inference and speculation.
Ideas and Practices in State Monopoly of Maritime Violence in Europe and Asia in the Period of Transition
Editor: Atsushi Ota
In the Name of the Battle against Piracy discusses antipiracy campaigns in Europe and Asia in the 16th-19th centuries. Nine contributors argue how important antipiracy campaigns were for the establishment of a (colonial) state, because piracy was a threat not only to maritime commerce, but also to its sovereignty.

'Battle against piracy' offered a good reason for a state to claim its authority as the sole protector of people, and to establish peace, order, and sovereignty. In fact, as the contributors explain, the story was not that simple, because states sometimes attempted to make economic and political use of piracy, while private interests were strongly involved in antipiracy politics. State formation processes were not clearly separated from non-state elements.

Contributors are: Kudo Akihito, Satsuma Shinsuke, Suzuki Hideaki, Lakshmi Sabramanian, Ota Atsushi, James Francis Warren, Fujita Tatsuo, Murakami Ei, and Toyooka Yasufumi.

Abstract

This article examines the transition of the Dutch East Indian Company (VOC) from a policy of self-defense into its full espousal of large-scale privateering and plundering. I argue that this shift was driven by both economic and political factors, and can be traced to the very formation of the Company as a unified trading venture. The taking of prizes became a cornerstone not only of the economic fortunes of the company, but the establishment of the Dutch colonial empire in Asia. Of particular interest is not only the instructions emanating from the company directors and the Dutch government in the metropolis, but especially the implementation and adaptation of these directives on the ground. It is this local context that adds a crucial dimension to interpretations of the eager espousal of maritime violence by the VOC and its agents in Asian waters.

In: Journal of Early Modern History
A Critical Edition of Johann Gröning’s Navigatio Libera (Extended 1698 Edition)
The original Latin text of Johann Gröning’s Navigatio libera has never before been translated into any modern vernacular language. Gröning’s intention was to set out the position of neutral nations (in this case the Danes and Swedes), and their right to pursue trade during the wars of the great maritime powers (particularly the English and the Dutch). It specifically sought to engage with and refute the work of Hugo Grotius while taking cognisance of the critique of Gröning’s work by Samuel Pufendorf. The text serves as a bridge between 17th-century polemical discourse surrounding the ‘free sea’ versus ‘enclosed sea’ debate and later 18th-century legal literature on the rights of neutrals and the continuation of free trade in time of war.

In Western depictions of piracy, notions of whiteness play a crucial role. This chapter argues that pirates depicted as white are associated with different forms of organised maritime violence to those depicted as non-white. Whereas white pirates tend to be understood as individuals who have consciously abandoned the civilisation they now turn against, non-white pirates tend to be constructed as a monolithic threat from the outside without any inner connection to the civilisation under attack. The chapter traces the origins of this differentiation to the legal treatment of privateers in the service of Mediterranean Barbary states. Here, the different legal conceptualisation of privateers who originate from the Barbary states and privateers that originate from European states has led to a racialised understanding of different forms of organised maritime violence. The construction of Barbary privateers in legal history is used in this chapter to contextualise contemporary political cartoons on Somali piracy. In particular, this chapter will address images that deliberately change the skin colour of the actors they depict, and show how these images transport a notion of race that is ultimately performative.

In: On Whiteness

full implications of these terse allegories came to be realized. In the Atlantic world, a simple coat of sovereignty, no more substantial than a letter of marque, turned the (illegitimate) pirate into a (legitimate) privateer, and established a Westphalian regime of maritime violence in which even the

In: Journal of Early Modern History