been struggling to reach common ground regarding the design of future market approaches, their scope, and their function. 24 For years, the discussions centred on what was referred to as ‘New Market Mechanisms’ ( nmm ) on the one hand, and the ‘Framework for Various Approaches’ ( fva ) on the
Charlotte Streck, Paul Keenlyside and Moritz von Unger
Charlotte Streck, Moritz von Unger and Nicole Krämer
market approach under Article 6.2, a centralized market mechanism under Article 6.4, and a non-market approach under Article 6.8. Article 6 provides a playing field for negotiators and stakeholders that argue in favor of international carbon pricing and carbon markets as policy instruments. Carbon
David M. Driesen
While the law of climate disruption constitutes a field of positivist study, the normative legal theory of climate disruption remains poorly understood. Many scholars treat climate-disruption law as another branch of neoclassical law and economics. This article argues that this approach does not fit climate law well and proposes an economic dynamic theory that provides a broad and useful framework for thinking about climate-disruption law and many other fields of law.
Gian Luca Burci
growing phenomenon of public-private partnerships in the field of international public health cooperation (PPPs). This trend has been led by the changing political dynamics surrounding international health issues as well as by the perception of the inadequacy of market mechanisms and the inability of
Essays in Honour of John H.A. Munro
Edited by Lawrin Armstrong, Ivana Elbl and Martin Elbl
Policies, Practices, and Social Problems
Edited by Mia Arp Fallov and Cory Blad
Edited by Lihuan Wu and Baixiang Liu
Trends, Policies and Experiences in Comparative Perspective
Edited by Hans G. Schuetze and Germán Álvarez Mendiola
But even where the state is still the main provider or funder, it relies increasingly on ‘market mechanisms’, for example contractual relations between state and institutions, competition among providers for resources, and external assessment of ‘outputs’ which means the results or impact of what universities do, in particular teaching and research. The new terminology speaks of price and competition, inputs and outputs, resources, cost and benefits, demand and supply, provider and customer, consumers and investors, quality control and accountability. Education, and post-secondary education especially are increasingly seen as matters for markets. Formal post-secondary education becomes a service, commercialized and traded across national borders.
This volume on changing relationship between state and market, contains, besides an introductory analytic overview of the issues, accounts from different countries, regions, and thematic perspectives. Chapter authors describe and analyze government reforms and other developments that have directly or indirectly affected this relationship. Although the geographical focus is on North America, especially Mexico, South East Asia and Europe, the phenomenon is not limited to these regions and countries but worldwide.
through industrial transformation and upgrading, and implementing effective governance of the market economy in order to steer economic development, regulated by market mechanisms, in the desired direction. In the new era of economic globalization, the mobility of various essential factors of production
expense control or in the transformation of the service model. However, there are still some hope for future development, which represents the future direction. 3.1 Combine Government-Led Operations with Market Mechanism Although a pro-administration reform has been carried out at grassroots medical