Several plant communities in central Panama, each community located near a weather station, contain trees with annual growth rings, i. e. Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum, and Annona spraguei. Tree-ring data are particularly valuable when concomitant weather information is readily available. Patterns of growth for the above species of trees were investigated across central Panama in relation to climate. A linear aggregate climate model was fitted to chronologies of each species at three sites along a rainfall gradient. Comparisons were made among sites to help explain how climate influences tree growth within central Panama.
range and density given. Temperature recordings from wild, active and sedentary tortoises indicated apre- fered maximumtemperature of 28-32 °C. Introduction Southern Africa hosts one of the richest terrestrial tortoise faunas in the world. At least eleven species in 5 genera occur, some with recognised
aperture with wet mud. The minimum and maximumtemperatures recorded inside sealed nests were less extreme than those recorded outside the nest. Introduction There are few reported studies of the vizcacheras frog Leptodactylus bufonius Boulenger, 1894 (Straneck et al., 1993), and these have concentrated
classes expressed as proportions (agriculture, cloud forest, Abies forest, Quercus forest, Quercus-Pinus forest, Pinus forest, Pinus-Quercus forest and grassland). We also included distance to water sources. Climatic variables, such as annual precipitation, maximumtemperature of the warmest
February) were exceptionally dry, whereas rainfall in April 2007 exceeded the long-term average (fig. 1a). Mean maximumtemperatures ranged from 19.1°C in May 2006 to 34.5°C in February 2007, while mean minima temperatures ranged from 0.9°C in June 2006 to 18.5°C in February 2007 (fig. 1b). Temperature
Lying (by 55 '/c , p < 0.01, sign test). For the Winter period, Table 9, there was a strong negative correlation between time spent Standing resting and daily maximumtemperature (r2 = 0.64, p < 0.001 ; b = -1.55, arcsine transformed data). Thus for each degree drop in temperature the animals increased
temperatures. The positive correlation between seasonal activity and the maximumtemperature (air and substrate) showed a unimodal distribution and was identical to the records from a tropical area (southeastern Brazil). It is possible that temper- ature is not the only environmental variable/factor that
the preferred temperature range in thermal gradient ( T p ). Pie charts show the percentage of T e above, within, and below T p range. The arrow points to the average of the temperatures. Critical maximumtemperature ( C T max ; from the literature) is depicted by the dashed line.
This paper provides coherent evidence on what Europe might expect in the case of a worst-case heat and drought event. The record-breaking heat in 1540 was an analogous case to the 2003 event, albeit more intense, longer lasting and affecting a larger area—extending from France to Poland and from Italy to Germany, also including Spain and Morocco. Both in Switzerland and in Poland, precipitation in spring, summer, and autumn was below twentieth century averages. Discharge deficits of ninety percent were assessed for major rivers. Due to the extreme soil dessication, maximum temperatures in early August probably rose above 40ºC. By then, forest and settlement fires were ravaging throughout continental Europe. Premodern societies were surprisingly resilient to extreme conditions, notwithstanding the widespread dysentery, cattle mortality, and forest fires. The majority of the impact of a 1540-like event on present societies would be caused by the resulting severe water shortage and its cascading across interlinked systems. In particular, fossil and nuclear energy production, which depend on a sufficient amount of cooling water, would be significantly affected. Such a shortage might entail longer-lasting power blackouts with disruptive impacts on societies and economies.
(which has to be brought from ʿAden) so that conditions for intensive cultivation and settlement are quite lacking. As regards climate, Perīm shows a transition between western and southern Tihāma with maximumtemperatures which are at their highest average more than that of western Tihāma (July 37.8° C