attempts to understand this role is longstanding. Philosophical considerations can help us to get beyond it. 2. The Impasse Over the last twenty years or so, the relationship between attention and multisensory integration has gained a reputation for being baffling. It has often been suggested
, and hence they can easily report on the presence of intersensory conflicts. In the present study, we set out to measure how such behavioural costs associated with multisensory integration are modulated by the correlation between multiple sensory signals presented in different modalities. Human
. , 1981). Nonetheless, there is also ample evidence for context effects under conditions of multisensory stimulation. In the domain of multisensory integration, such context effects are addressed in situations where the target and the irrelevant stimulation emerge from different modalities. In the
1. Introduction In our everyday environment, we are exposed to a barrage of multi-modal stimuli (i.e., images, sounds, smells, etc.). Multisensory integration is the neural process which can allow for the production of a coherent percept of such multisensory stimuli (Senkowski et al
highlighting the role of multiple sensory inputs in the cause of cybersickness, more recent advances in knowledge of multisensory integration have only recently applied to this field (Balter et al. , 2004; Jürgens et al. , 2016; Oman, 2012; Weech and Troje, 2017). Here we review the current literature to
Our research project aimed at investigating multisensory temporal integration in synesthesia and explore whether or not there are commonalities in the sensory experiences of synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Specifically, we investigated whether or not synesthetes are better integrators than non-synesthetes by examining the strength of multisensory binding (i.e., the unity effect) using an unspeeded temporal order judgment task. We used audiovisual stimuli based on grapheme-colour synesthetic associations (Experiment 1) and on crossmodal correspondences (e.g., high-pitch — light colours; Experiment 2) presented at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) with the method of constant stimuli. Presentation of these stimuli in congruent and incongruent format allowed us to examine whether congruent stimuli lead to a stronger unity effect than incongruent ones in synesthetes and non-synesthetes and, thus, whether synesthetes experience enhanced multisensory integration than non-synesthetes. Preliminary data support the hypothesis that congruent crossmodal correspondences lead to a stronger unity effect than incongruent ones in both groups, with this effect being stronger in synesthetes than non-synesthetes. We also found that synesthetes experience stronger unity effect when presented with idiosyncratically congruent grapheme-colour associations than in incongruent ones as compared to non-synesthetes trained in certain grapheme-colour associations. Currently, we are investigating (Experiment 3) whether trained non-synesthetes exhibit enhanced integration when presented with synesthetic associations that occur frequently among synesthetes. Utilizing this design we will provide psychophysical evidence of the multisensory integration in synesthesia and the possible common processing mechanisms in synesthetes and non-synesthetes.
perception of our environment. Yet even though multisensory experience is pervasive in everyday life, the relationship between multisensory integration and perceptual awareness remains unclear. This lack of clarity is all the more surprising given that several leading theories see a strong link between
between the senses, in the form of differences in multisensory integration in migraine groups. 3. Multisensory Integration in Migraine Schwedt ( 2013 ) reviewed the literature looking at audiovisual, pain and auditory, visual and vestibular associations in migraine groups, and to date, this
. Stein B. E. Stanford T. R. ( 2008 ). Multisensory integration: current issues from the perspective of the single neuron , Nature Rev. Neurosci. 9 , 255 – 266 .
1. Introduction Multisensory integration refers to our brain’s ability to combine information from different senses into one coherent perception of the world around us. It is a perceptual function that has seen a surge of interest in research in the past decade (Alais et al ., 2010