We describe a possible new defensive behaviour of larval stages of mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda). Mantis shrimp larvae are rarely observed in nature, thus the study is based on postures of museum material and functional morphological aspects. Specimens described here are tightly enrolled, their pleon is bent forward, and the telson is locked into the frontal margin of the shield. This margin has two lobes into which the two posterolateral spines of the telson fit. The shield shows further adaptions to enrolment; e.g., the ventral gape of the shield perfectly matches the width of the pleon and leaves no major gaps when the pleon is bent forward. Based on these observations, we briefly discuss the possibilities to infer behavioural aspects from functional morphological aspects. Enrolment in modern day organisms is primarily known from terrestrial arthropods, e.g., pill bugs and pill millipedes, but in the Palaeozoic it was mainly performed by marine organisms such as trilobites, agnostines and their relatives. Stomatopod larvae that appear to be able to perform enrolling in a marine environment are therefore a potential functional equivalent for better understanding the functional aspects of enrolment in extinct marine arthropods.
illustrations. We therefore present a complete redescription of manca stages 2 and 3, as well as of an adult female, on the basis of our material from the North Atlantic, together with a redescription of an adult male based on museummaterial. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Die Art Calathura brachiata (Stimpson, 1853) wurde
objects; Museums, material culture
Book reviews 381 and performance in Southeast Asia. London: Horniman Museum and Gardens, 2004, xiv + 188 pp. [Contributions in Critical Museology and Material Culture.] ISBN 1.903338.01.8. Price: GBP 25.00 (paperback). jennifer lindsay When working in Jakarta in the
Contact zones between Israeli Ptyodactylus species were evaluated from museum material and hybridization experiments, the first controlled hybridization between gekkonid species. In southern Israel and Sinai P. guttatus and hasselquistii are partly sympatric, occasionally syntopic. Intermediate specimens were absent and experimental hybridization failed. Probably prezygotic isolation operates. In northern Israel, P. guttatus and P. puiseuxi are parapatric; in and near their boundary, occasional putative hybrids occur. These resemble the few laboratory hybrids obtained. No F2 were obtained. Probably the two species are separated by a combination of partial isolating mechanisms.
Small populations of several species of the groundwater dwelling amphipod genus Ingolfiella are found in caves, wells, seabottoms, beaches and riverbed interstitial habitats. To gain insight in the socio-ecology of these elusive species, we used data from collected specimens to explore the relationships between sexratios, display of secondary sexual characters and other morphological features, and habitat use. We extracted data on the sex ratios and the presence-absence of secondary sexual characters of 13 species from the literature and through examination of museum material. We found a clearly skewed sex ratio with a preponderance of females, both in the individual species as in the genus as a whole. However, sex ratio and the display of secondary sexual characters were not correlated, nor did these characters correlate with the amount of sexual dimorphism. It remains unknown why so many ingolfiellids have evolved these costly features.
The present work revises the taxonomy of one group of camaenid gastropods from Timor-Leste based on the study of a large number of recently collected ethanol preserved samples as well as historic museum material, including types. By employing comparative analyses of the variation in morphological features (shell, penial anatomy) and the differentiation in mitochondrial DNA sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI) and the 16S rDNA (16S), altogether nineteen species are recognized from Timor-Leste and adjacent areas in the Lesser Sunda and Moluccas, such as West-Timor, Adonara, Leti and Sermata Islands (Indonesia). Four of these species were described previously and have mostly been placed within the genus Chloritis Beck, 1837 in the few historic treatments available. Fifteen species found to be new are formally described. In contrast to the previous taxonomic treatment, placement in the genus Parachloritis Ehrmann, 1912 is proposed on grounds of comparative shell morphology. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that all examined species form a monophyletic group, which encompasses diverse shell forms. While most species have shells of the general chloritid type, which are of little taxonomic utility, highly distinct shell morphs (trochoid shells, dwarf forms) have originated within this radiation in independent lineages. Morphological change has occurred in some taxonomic lineages while the bulk of Parachloritis species has maintained an ancestral shell phenotype. This phenotypic stasis is attributed to stabilizing selection in species, which have maintained associations with ancestral habitats, while distinct shell forms have evolved as result of habitat shifts. Consequently, purely shellbased taxonomies are prone to errors due to misjudging the significance of shell characters. While some Parachloritis species uncovered here were found to be narrowly endemic, others had wide distributions that include more than one island. Narrow range endemism was predominantly found in dwarf species and in species that live in high altitudes.
Species boundaries delineating tropical sea anemones (Cnidaria, Actiniaria) of the zooxanthellate genus, Heteranthus
, are unclear. There are currently two valid Heteranthus species: type species Heteranthus verruculatus
, first reported from Koseir, Egypt, and H. insignis
, from Poulo Condore, Vietnam. In describing the latter from a single, poorly preserved specimen, zoologist Oskar Carlgren expressed apprehension with traits he had used to establish this species. Carlgren’s doubts persisted later in writing when he found a similar-looking sea anemone from the Great Barrier Reef. Crucial details to positively identify either species have since remained limited. Here, we re-diagnosed Heteranthus and re-described its type species based on observations of specimens we have obtained from Singapore and Pulau Ambon (Indonesia), and of museum material collected elsewhere across the Indo-West Pacific region (n > 180). Supported by molecular phylogenetic evidence, the family Heteranthidae was reinstated and re-diagnosed. Heteranthus verruculatus is encountered in the lower intertidal region amongst seagrass, in rocky crevices, or coral rubble. It occurs as solitary individuals or in clonal clusters, well-camouflaged against the substratum. Individuals were observed to frequently propagate by longitudinal fission, resulting in a varied appearance. Type material of H. verruculatus and H. insignis were re-examined and as we found no differences between them, the two were synonymised. We inferred that Carlgren probably misinterpreted cnidae and histological data in defining H. insignis as a distinct species. This revision clarifies the taxonomy and geographic range of H. verruculatus, an Indo-West Pacific species that is found from the Red Sea to subtropical Australia and Hawaii.
Carthaginian collections – and indigenous arts. In these museums, material culture was not treated as ‘cultural information’, but as ‘decorative arts’. In this first section of the book, I examine the exhibition of Tunisian material culture in colonial museums of indigenous arts during the French Protectorate
M. ?Jranuli f erum Stimpson, 1858, an ovigerous female specimen (cl 7.6, cb 8.3 mm) from the Copenhagen Museummaterial. We also select as paralectotypes the remaining five males and seven females in the lot. The type locality of M. granulifel-uln is thereby restricted to St. Thomas, Virgin Islands
a key prerequisite for the fishery management.
In this contribution we report upon the records of L. confundens on the continental shelf south of 36°S, based on the recent surveys by the RV “Puerto Deseado” and museummaterial.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Samples were taken with shrimp bottom