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appointments, at least one arbitrator—the President or the sole arbitrator—is selected by agreement of the parties or by a neutral authority. A neutral authority usually plays a role in arbitrator selection under most applicable rules. The neutral appointing authority selects an arbitrator when there is no

In: Brill Research Perspectives in International Investment Law and Arbitration

appointments, at least one arbitrator—the President or the sole arbitrator—is selected by agreement of the parties or by a neutral authority. A neutral authority usually plays a role in arbitrator selection under most applicable rules. The neutral appointing authority selects an arbitrator when there is no

In: The Selection and Removal of Arbitrators in Investor-State Dispute Settlement

with more neutral authorities. The reforms enhanced the representativeness, power and accountability of the legislatures in various ways, including multipartyism, establishment of standing subcommissions, bestowal of subpoena power, and decrease in appointed representatives. Particular attention is

In: Asian Journal of Social Science

In the 1980’s, at the edge of new digital media art and before massive online communication was available, communities of amateur musicians used 8-bit systems for sophisticated graphical demonstrations on extremely limited hardware. These communities were part of a sub-culture labelled as the ‘demo scene,’ which served as the hotbed for amateur musicians that, encouraged by the same DIY paradigm that fuelled the Punk movement, used sound loops to reformulate and repurpose mainstream music in a customised and technologically accessible manner. A community coalesced around music as an open technological artefact and pioneered the subversion of the traditional music industry production and distribution models as early as the 1980’s. Through shared and specific ethics and values, tracker communities encourage competitive learning that implicitly encourages a ‘tinkering’ approach to education. With a unique usage of cultural bricolage as a primary compositional methodology, their equalitarian principle of training as a peer activity, primarily based on common purpose and neutral authority, still stands as the anathema of artistic collectivisation, even after successive technological advancements. This chapter will focus on the sociological principles behind tracker communities and the relation between the digital music composition and the role of cultural artefacts in digital communities, especially in the light of post-modern music composition techniques and online music sharing.

In: A Digital Janus: Looking Forward, Looking Back

never interferes with the private affairs of bourgeois society. As a neutral authority, it is supposed to stand above (economic as well as religious) individual interests. At the same time, it must make room for these individual interests using bourgeois society. Böckenförde as well as Fischer

In: Method & Theory in the Study of Religion

confl icts the state—as a supposedly ‘neutralauthority—is called upon to resolve. 13 In the cases mentioned above, the state has rather become the defendant itself and thus an active participant in the confl ict: at one time as a state that inadmissibly (in the eyes of the suitor and ultimately also

In: Journal of Religion in Europe

that may suffer no exception.” 83 If a tribunal is not independent and impartial there is no reason to proceed further on the examination of whether it respects other fair trial rights. 84 The independence and impartiality of a tribunal aim to ensure that individuals are judged by neutral authorities

In: UN Security Council Referrals to the International Criminal Court

Christian scholars was how to establish common authorities from which convincing arguments could be made. Since Christians did not accept the Qurʾān, and Muslims were cautious about the Bible, a different, more “neutralauthority needed to be identified if apologetical exchanges were to have any success

In: Heirs of the Apostles

contemporary standards of scientific research and progress. Gadamer in this way seems to rule out any possibility of a Heidegger-Gadamer debate, if that would imply that they would both stand as equals before the neutral authority of reason. Indeed in Truth and Method Gadamer presents Heidegger as the

In: Research in Phenomenology

, but by a third and neutral authority, an umpire – just as Hippias had proposed the introduction of an umpire at a critical moment in the dialogue (337e-338b). A show of hands by the audience surrounding the two protagonists in favour of one or other contestant would serve this function equally well

In: Phronesis