Infectious disease influences the dynamics of host populations and the structure of species communities via impacts on host demography. Species that share infectious diseases are well-known to interact indirectly through the process of apparent competition, but there has been little attention given to the role of vectors in these indirect interactions. Here we explore how vector-borne disease and host-vector interactions can drive apparent competitive interactions. We show that different facets of the ecology associated with vector-host-host interactions affect the structure of the three-species assemblage. Crucially, the patterns associated with invasion of alternative hosts, the spread of the infectious disease by the vector, and the dynamics of the community interactions are influenced by the mode of transmission. We highlight the role of alternative hosts on disease amplification, dilution and magnification and discuss the results with reference to recent developments in apparent competition and community structure.
HKB model (named after the authors Haken, Kelso and Bunz), which would proof to be the basis for a new branch of movement science, the topics of synergetics and non-lineardynamics will be briefly discussed. Excellent reviews of the application of the dynamical systems approach to human movement and
, perhaps subconsciously, assuming ‘that ancient writers are describing the same phenomena as modern writers but less convincingly.’ 65 A recent development in historiography opens up an alternative approach that focuses on non-lineardynamics and ‘the modelling and understanding of complex natural and
some other part of the stream, past or future, near or remote, is always mixed in with our knowledge of the present thing.” James also argued against a linear con- ception of time. In this he anticipates some contemporary neurobiologists who have recognized the relevance of non-lineardynamics in
specific technology policies, but also technology studies. In the introduction to the volume, Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff argue that linear models of "demand pull" or "technology push" have been superseded by evolutionary models that analyze developments in terms of networks. According to them, non- linear
abstractions and theoretical models to the real lives of human beings in the lifeworld. Gallagher’s suggestion to include artificial variations such as computer simulations and models, robotic hardware, and bio-chemistry’s “modeling the specificity of life and mind within a mathematical framework of non-linear
the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences
van der Leeuw
van der Leeuw
Introduction: Archaeology and non-lineardynamics – new approaches to long-term change.
, 1989). The theory of chaos - and of non-lineardynamics in general - can be formulated within the framework of cybernetics, but its implications are not limited to systems theory. From a structural perspective, based on individual entities situated in a spatial environment instead of a set of coupled
of thinking, with special focus on the non-lineardynamics of a system,” requiring a computer-generated model of the effects of petrocracy on the biosphere.
Understanding the Anthropocene means working with “the coevolution of the geosphere and the biosphere, and now the techno
the work of Lucretius as a serious statement of non-lineardynamics was M. Serres, La nais- sance de la physique dans le texte de Lucrèce (Paris: Éditions de Minuit, 1977); trans- lated by J. Hawkes under the title The Birth of Physics , ed. D. Webb (Manchester: Clinamen Press, 2000); hereafter cited