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system fragmentation, operationally defined as the effective number of parties or mathematically similar indices, has received a substantial attention in the massive literature focused on the societal and / or institutional factors that produce party systems with varying numbers of important parties (Rae

In: Comparative Sociology

, irrespective of their duration. While remaining within the range of 1 to 5, the resulting measure is continuous rather than discrete. Its mean and median values are 3.52 and 3.71, respectively. Party System Format: The Problems of Measurement and a Preliminary Test The effective number of parties ( enp

In: Comparative Sociology

argued here that increasing the accountability between various branches of government and limiting the number of parties will lead to increases in the administrative capacity of the state (strength) and to increases in the republican character of the state (fi rmness). Th e results of several least

In: African and Asian Studies
Tome IV jurisprudence - situation actuelle - bibliographie
Volumes I, II and III of this reference work were published in 1976, 1980 and 1984, respectively.
The core of the books consists of court decisions involving the Hague Conventions in force in the field of private international law. This wealth of information has been made accessible by arranging the decisions per Convention and then per legal issue, thus clearly showing similarities and differences in the application of each Convention by a variety of countries and tribunals. Considering the increasing number of Conventions between a growing number of parties, this system is eminently suited to illustrate problems of application. The cases decided in ten European countries, the U.S.A., Canada, Australia and Israel, cover the period from 1979 to 1989.
Of at least equal importance in practice is the Situation actuelle as per April 1994, of the Conventions concluded since 1954. This survey shows the signatures, ratifications, reservations and other declarations relating to each Convention.
The Conventions have given rise not only to a large number of cases, but also to a vast literature throughout the world, which appears in a 20-page bibliography arranged per session of the Hague Conference, and per Convention.
The Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference has cooperated in the realization of this series, which will prove to be indispensable for practicing lawyers and legal scholars who have anything to do with the Hague Conference in any area of private international law or international procedural law.
Volumes I, II, III and IV of this reference work were published in 1976, 1980, 1984 and 1994 respectively. The core of the books consists of court decisions involving the Hague Conventions in force in the field of private international law. This wealth of information has been made accessible by arranging the decisions per Convention and then per legal issue, thus clearly showing similarities and differences in the application of each Convention by a variety of countries and tribunals. Considering the increasing number of Conventions between a growing number of parties, this system is eminently suited to illustrate problems of application.
Volume V completes the jurisprudence of the series with cases covering the period from 1990 to 1995 as well as a number of cases of an earlier date which were only recently received. They originate from fourteen European countries, the USA, Canada, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the Dutch Antilles and Israel. Also included are a few decisions from the ICC and the European Court of Justice.
A survey as per April 1994 of signatures, ratifications, reservations and other declarations relating to each Convention can be found in Volume IV, which volume also includes an overview of the vast literature the Conventions have given rise to throughout the world.
The Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference has cooperated in the realization of this series, which will prove to be indispensable for practising lawyers and legal scholars who have anything to do with the Hague Conference in any area of private international law or international procedural law.

in elections held at different territorial levels may differ significantly, and it is interesting to gain an understanding of where there is more competitiveness—at national elections or regional elections. To measure this competitiveness we use indicators of the effective number of parties ( ENP

In: Russian Politics
A Challenge for Cooperation
Author: Park Hee Kwon
The Law of the Sea is a vast and multi-faceted area of international law. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the Convention constitute essential instruments of the law of the sea governing a new maritime order for the international community. With its entry into force on November 16, 1994, the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has virtually become the Magna Carta of the Oceans, or the Constitution for the Oceans. Testifying to its success is the number of Parties adhering to it, now totaling 132 States, including one international organization, the European Community. The world is entering the era of a New Maritime Order based on near-universal adherence to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
In the wake of the Convention's entry into force and its ratification by many States in Northeast Asia, a new maritime order is emerging in the region. The littoral States have enacted and promulgated new national legislation to incorporate the provisions of the UN Convention into their domestic legal order. The three littoral States China, Japan and South Korea concluded or initialed bilateral fisheries agreements based on the new concept of extended jurisdiction set forth by the UN Convention. The UN Convention will, however, present even more challenges than opportunities for the littoral States of Northeast Asia in their quest for a new maritime order. The maritime security situation in the region has been and will continue to be extremely volatile due to conflicting claims, disputed boundaries, unregulated pollution of the marine environment and widespread illegal activities at sea.
The author has set the both pragmatic and ambitious aim of outlining the emerging maritime order in Northeast Asia. As a practitioner of the law of the sea who has participated in bilateral and multilateral negotiations on maritime affairs, the author sheds light on the new maritime order in the making at the international and regional levels. The author also delineates the main issues and disputes hindering the establishment of a new maritime order in the region and present policy options that could contribute to erecting a solid maritime order in the region by peaceful and cooperative means. Finally, the author presents a compilation of relevant legal texts, most of which were produced after the entry into force of the UN Convention, in the hope that this collection will prove useful for desk officers in charge of ocean affairs in promoting peaceful and constructive solutions for maritime issues in Northeast Asia.
This work serves as a realistic analysis of the current law and State practice, as well as of the progressive development of the law of the sea and its codification in the wake of the entry into force of the 1982 UN Convention.

[German version] (συνθήκη; synthḗkē). Something 'fixed in common' by a number of parties, often recorded in epigraphic or documentary form (usually in the plural: synthḗkai). In Greek philosophy, nómos [1] and the synthēkē (as positive rules) are contrasted with nature (φύσις, phýsis) [3

In: Brill's New Pauly Online

most important sources for party decisions. Other valuable publications are chronicles in the Yearbooks of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia, in Ekonomicheskaia Zhizn'SSSR, Khronika Sobytii i Faktov 1917-1959 and 1917-1965, and in Industrializatsiia SSSR 1926-1941 gg.3 The number of party decisions over

In: Review of Socialist Law
Author: Rena Lee

“congruence” in this paper. 15 Such congruence is reflected both in terms of subject matter and in terms of number of parties. All three conventions share a common objective of protecting human health and the environment. 16 There are 183 parties to the Basel Convention, 181 parties to the Stockholm

In: The Marine Environment and United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 14