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Samvel Varvaštian

emerged, both in the United States and elsewhere, targeting states for lagging in climate change mitigation efforts, particularly with regard to ghg emission reductions, and invoking, among other things, the mechanisms offered by human rights law—namely, states’ constitutional obligations to protect the

The Horizontal Effect of International Human Rights Law in Practice

A Comparative Analysis of the General Comments and Jurisprudence of Selected United Nations Human Rights Treaty Monitoring Bodies

Lottie Lane

each of the five bodies deal with the horizontal effect of human rights. The analysis itself was conducted from the viewpoint of ‘horizontal effect’, and due to the findings, turned out to be exclusively focused on indirect horizontal effect. In particular, the State obligation to protect human

The International Seabed Authority and the Precautionary Principle

Balancing Deep Seabed Mineral Mining and Marine Environmental Protection


Aline L. Jaeckel

With the transition to the commercial-scale exploitation of deep seabed minerals, the International Seabed Authority’s obligation to protect the marine environment is being tested. In The International Seabed Authority and the Precautionary Principle, Aline L. Jaeckel provides the first in-depth analysis of the Authority’s work in regulating and managing deep seabed minerals.

This book examines whether and to what extent the Authority is implementing the precautionary principle in practice. This includes the development of adequate environmental protection standards as well as procedural safeguards and decision-making processes that facilitate risk assessment and risk management. In doing so, the author offers an insightful example of how the precautionary principle can be translated into a practical management tool.

importance for the individual and the nature of the activities restricted, as well as the nature of the aim pursued by the restrictions. While there is an emerging international consensus recognising the special needs of minorities and an obligation to protect their security, identity and lifestyle, the

Pascale Ricard

environment, i.e., Articles 192 and 194, as part of a general ‘due diligence’ obligation to protect and preserve the marine environment, in the light of other requirements of international environmental law, including treaty law relating to protected species. 23 These general obligations establish a link

Piet Hein van Kempen and Masha Fedorova

and/or harmful infections, and the prevention of overdoses or the contraction of fatal diseases resulting from the use of hard drugs – by separating the soft drugs and hard drugs markets – are all relevant from the perspective of the positive obligation to protect the right to life (Articles 6 ICCPR

Xiuli Han

international legal obligations: One is to protect public health, and the other is to protect and promote foreign investment. 3.1. Obligation to Protect Foreign Investent According to the Switzerland-Uruguay BIT on which the Philip Morris’s claims are based, Uruguay has to protect and promote investment

Ekkehard Strauss

improve the imple mentation of existing legal obligations to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing. If used for the development of a continuum of civil and military action to prevent and halt only these exceptional crimes, the necessary practice and